Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/50

Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define polymorphic
Having many forms
Define codominant
Refers to genes that share dominance; genes that are both equally displayed
Define syngeneic
Genetically identical
Allo- means
Something that is from the same species but different individuals
Auto- means
Self
What are the major HLA genes found on MHC Class I molecules?
A, B, and C
MHC Class I genes display antigens to what T cell type?
Cytotoxic (CD8+) cells
MHC Class II genes display antigens to what T cell type?
Helper (CD4+) cells
What is the main purpose of MHC?
To bind to antigenic peptides and present them to T cells
What is the role of cytokines in the regulation of MHC molecules?
Increases expression, enabling more MHC molecules to be displayed and, therefore, more capable of binding to more antigen
Which cytokine is produced by the kidneys and stimulates the bone marrow to synthesize red cells?
Erythropoietin
Which cytokine is a multi-lineage colony-stimulating factor?
IL-3
Which cytokine is produced by NK cells and activates macrophages to kill ingested pathogens, promotes B cell class switching, activates vascular endothelial cells, controls differentiation of helper T cells, and stimulates the expression of MHC molecules?
IFN-gamma
Which cytokine works along with IL-4 and promotes fibrosis, stimulates mucus production, induces IgE class switching, and promotes inflammation?
IL-13
Which cytokine is associated with the differentiation and activation of eosinophils?
IL-5
Which cytokine stimulates B cells to produce IgE?
IL-4
Which cytokine is needed for the survival of regulatory T cells, stimulates the survival and differentiation of effector cells, and promotes the replication and differentiation of NK cells?
IL-2
Which two cytokines are synergistic with IL-12?
IL-18 and IL-15
Which cytokine stimulates the production of neutrophils, the synthesis of acute phase reactants from the liver, and the growth of B cells that produce antibodies as well as is involved in inflammation and tumor growth?
IL-6
The action of IL-10 is to ___________________ immune responses.
Inhibit
What disorders can IFN-alpha be used to treat?
Viral hepatitis and hematologic malignancies
IFN-beta can be given to patients to treat ____________.
Multiple sclerosis
What are the functions of interferons?
Interferes with viral replication, increases expression of class I MHC molecules, stimulates the development of helper T cells, and helps keep lymphocytes in the lymph nodes
What are the functions of IL-12?
Stimulates the production of IFN-gamma, promotes differentiation of naive helper T cells, and enhances cytotoxicity of CD8+ cells
How does IL-1 differ from TNF?
IL-1 can not induce apoptosis or cause changes of septic shock by itself
Small cytokines that are involved in chemotaxis, angiogenesis, organ development, and leukocyte trafficking are known as:
Chemokines
Describe the sequence of events when an infection is caused by extracellular bacteria.
Macrophages at the site of infection produce TNF, IL-1, and chemokines. TNF and IL-1 stimulate the endothelial cells to demonstrate selectins and chemokines stimulate diapedesis in order to recruit more cells to the site.
Describe the sequence of events when an infection is caused by intracellular bacteria.
Macrophages and dendritic cells secrete IL-12, which stimulates the differentiation of NK and T cells to produce IFN-gamma. IFN-gamma then activates macrophages to digest the bacteria.
Describe the sequence of events when an infection is caused by a virus.
Type I interferons are secreted to interfere with viral replication
What are the negative effects that a large amount of TNF have on the host system?
Shock, loss of myocardial contractibility, intravascular thrombosis, metabolic disturbances (low glucose levels), fever, cachexia
What are the three functional categories of cytokines?
Innate, adaptive, hematopoietic
What are the beneficial effects of TNF?
Induces the expression of selectins, stimulates the secretion of chemokines that aid in chemotaxis, stimulates microbicidal activities of phagocytes, induces apoptosis
What are the eight general properties of cytokines?
Self-limited, pleiotropic, redundant, antagonistic, synergistic, local and systemic actions, regulated by external factors, not many are needed to stimulate reaction, can cause changes in gene expression
A cytokine that acts of the cell that created it is said to have a(n) _________ action.
Autocrine
A cytokine that acts on the cells near the one that created it is said to have a(n) __________ action.
Paracrine
A cytokine that acts on a cell that is at a distance from the one that created it has a(n) ____________ action.
Endocrine
Define pleiotropic.
One cytokine can act on several different cell types
Define antagonistic.
Something that works against something else.
Define synergistic.
Something that works along with something else.
Something that is endogenous is:
Host-derived
What is a pyrogen?
Something that causes fever
The wasting away of muscle and fat is known as:
Cachexia
Heart muscle is ______ tissue.
Myocardial
A marked drop in blood pressure is known as:
Shock
Define intravascular thrombosis.
The formation of blood clots inside blood vessels
What is a blood infection called?
Sepsis
What is angiogenesis?
The formation of blood vessels
What is a hepatocyte?
Liver cell
Define neoplastic.
Tumor
When something is pyogenic, it forms:
Pus