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32 Cards in this Set

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Stats for organ transplants
Kidney 10k
Liver 3k

Heart 2k

Skin from burns

Bone marrow (leukemia and cancer
Transplant and 1967 as historic hallmark
Lewis shasanski
Survived almost 3 weeks
First successful heart transplantation
Dr. Christian Barnard
Skin transplants involve strains of mice
Took different strains of mice
Balb/c
C57/BL6
All Balb/C strain mice
had same genetic background
Where twins
Know the difference between donor, recipient and outcome
Outcome of transplants: graph takes indefinitely
and the RECIPIENT is TOLERANT
strain Balb + strain C57 Outcome
REJECTION
11-15 days

First set rejection
Take first rejection and add Balb again
REJECTION
Second set rejection
6-8 days
Second set rejection and C stripe
Then you get first set rejection
Because there is not global memory

Memory is only balb C
AB T cells and inject to naive strain B
or AB T cells and inject into strain A
Second set kinetics
6-8 days
Rapid immunity that you get during 2nd set- T cells

Transfer rapid immunity by transplanting T cells
AutograFT
From the same organism, but different part


TAKE
SYNGRAFT
mouse A + mouse A
Tissues are histocompatable MHC

TAKE
ALLOGRAFT
Mouse B+ mouse A

REJECT
XENOGRAFT
mouse plus rabbit

REJECT

This is useful because there is a shortage of organs to transport
What do nude mice and SCID have in common
they don't have T cells
Nude mice
lack thymus
SCID
Severely combined immuno deficient mice

Defect of T Cell Receptors
Di George Cell patients
lack T cells so don't reject T cells
Geroge SNELL
mapped which crosses reject or didn't reject
Congenic Mice
animals that are genetically identical except for one particular genetic characteristic.

All strain A, small stretch of B
George Snell identified what
large stretch of DNA
Major Histocompatibility Complex
Allograph presents peptides and causes rejection
STRONG, ROBUST RESPONSE

Problem is the cross-reactivity of T cell receptors
T cell that normally recognizes self-MHC+ peptide cross reacts with foreignt MHC + peptide
TCR cross reactivity
TCR doesn't have a brain, instead it has
It's looking for a fit. So T cell is goign to be activated by foreign MHC and peptide
Dysfunction of CTL
Normally kills virally infected cell, but because of allograph (cross reactivity of TCR) can kill heart (foreign MHC+ peptide )
Hyperacute transplantation
Ab+ C' ---> AbO

Endothelial Cells that line blood
You destroy the tissue by destroying blood supply (vessels)
Acute rejection occurs because of
Different MHC alleles
Signs of acute rejection
Renal function decreases
Proteonemia
Kidney is enlarged

Complete loss in 10-14 days
Chronic rejection
months to years
progressive dysfunction



infiltration of leukocytes into the kidney

FIBROSIS: build up of scar tissue
VASCULAR OCCLUSION: vessels slowly close down so that you don't get blood through heart (DTH in vascular wall)

Acce;erated arterop schlerosis
How do you prevent rejection?
hla/MHC allele matcjomg

heart transplants don't both MHC matching
Cytosporin Suppressin CsA
NFAT is a txn factor downstream of calcium
NFAT is important for activation of T cells

Block NFAT
Block T cells
Little to no allographic rejection( T cell's cross-reactivity with foreign peptide/MHC
Fk506
is another example of preventing rejection
CsA and Fk506
Toxic to kiney

If there are T cells in the biospy,More drug

If there aren't any T cells at all, less drug