Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
limits infection, and to stimulate healing, response of body tissue to injury (non-specific)
Inflammation begins with
damaged tissue, and properties of microbes
signs of inflammation
redness, swelling, heat, pain, and maybe loss of function
scab form, new growth of capillaries, new growth of tissue cells, scab will be replaced with new tissues, possible scar
RES - reticuleoendothelical system
population of phagocytes can be wandering/mobile - found in blood fixed/histocytes - found in tissues (filter microbes from tissues)
increased permiability
allow fluid and cells to leave capalliaries, enter tissue. Clotting factors will become active and wall off the injured area. Phagocytes will stick to capillary wall and then enter the tissue
oxygen dependent killing
toxic free radicals (cells killed by oxidation) toxic nitrogen components
whwn the phagosome fuses with the lysosome
phagolysosome - digestion of microbe
have no granules in the cytoplasm monocyte (blood), mocrophage (tissue) 2-8% WBC population involved in phagocytosis, processing antigens in specific aquired immunity
dialate blood vessels, cause fever, increase motility and metabolism of phagocytes, attract platelets
25-30% WBC population specific, aquired immunity
oxygen independent killing
hydrolytic enzymes (break down components of bacterial cell) lysozyme, low ph, lactic acid
Interferoms as 1st defense (small proteins that are antiviral)
(protects neighboring cells against infection) produced by infected cells in very small amounts -- release intereferom -- taken up by neighboring cells -- produce antiviral protein to prevent virus replication, limits virus sprea, not virus specific, is species specific
same as histadine + attracts phagocytes
PMN, polys, segs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, role-pahgocytosis 60-70% of WBC population
adherance, engulfment
microbe enters cell - phagosome
red blood cells primarily involved in transporting oxygen
dialation of blood vessels in injured area =
increased blood flow - cause symptoms redness, swelling, heat, pain, and loss of function
cell fragements involved in clotting
engulfment and destruction of microbes by WBC - neutrophils and macrophages
2nd line of defense found in blood fluid and cells
fluid - serum-derived from clotted blood, plasma-cloting factors present
cellular-stem cells in bone marrow
dialate blood vessels, increase blood vessell permeability
1-5% WBC population somewhat phagocytic, active in parasitic infections
enzymes/chemicals as 1st defense
acidity - skin, stomach, vaginal tract
enzymes - digestive tract
lysozyme - attack PTG
lactoferin - hold iron
2nd line of defense-innate
cellular and chemical barriers
attraction of phagocytes
1% or less WBC population involved in inflammation
upper respiratory tract as 1st defense
ciliated cells - coated with mucus - cilia wave upward so mucas escalaltes (sneezing)
granules in cytoplasm and multilobed nucleus
mucus membranes as 1st defense
thin, exposedm to body fluids, secretions pass through, coated with mucus - thick, sticky, made of protein, will trap microbes/ protective layer over thin membrane
1st line of defense-inate
includes physical and chemical barriers
non-specific/anate resistance
physical chemical and cellular barriers
skin as 1st defense
keratin (protective layer), dry, shedding cells -- viruses need living cells, normal flora -- low ph
specific aquired resistance
resistanc edeveloped for specific microbe aquired = you've had previous exposure
washing action as 1st defense
tears, saliva, urine will dislute out microbes
G.I. Tract - stomach low ph as 1st defense
small intestine - fast flow, paristalsis (sluffing of cells)
vomiting/diarrhea - perging intestional tract
large intestine - normal flora