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50 Cards in this Set

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What is the innate immune system programmed to detect?
molecular patterns that are common across many different bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc. It is a very highly conserved system.
What is the E. coli cell wall composed of?
Peptidoglycan and LPS
LPS can be cleaved into?
Lipid A and polysaccharide components. Lipid A is the portion of LPS that induces pro-inflammatory gene expression
Gram positive walls have high levels of _________ whereas gram negative walls have high levels of __________.
lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan (gram +)
LPS and peptidoglycan (gram -)
Are the innate immune receptors high affinity or low affinity? Why?
Low affinity. Because you want to be able to bind a wide array of bacteria with many different molecular structures.
What type of cell walls do mycobacteria have?
mycolic acid and LAM
Collectin
collagen like lectin. Soluble proteins with tails containing collagen like AA sequences and heads that are globular which recognize Ag-Ab complexes, apoptotic cells, and pathogen (examples C1q, SP-A, SP-D)
What occurs with C1q deficient mice?
Decreased ability to clear apoptotic cell and cell debris, this results in an inflammatory process with the possibility of autoimmunity.
What is the innate immune system programmed to detect?
molecular patterns that are common across many different bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc. It is a very highly conserved system.
What type of molecules do the Scavenger Receptor superfamily recognize?
Transmembrane receptors that recognize molecular patterns on the surface of bacteria. Scavenger receptors aren't usually involved in signal transduction, they just strengthen association between bacteria and phagocytes
Cytokine storm
release of pro-inflammatory molecules (TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) via macrophages when bacteria enter the systemic circulation
What is the E. coli cell wall composed of?
Peptidoglycan and LPS
What are the two functions of CRP?
It acts as an opsonin by binding bacteria and it intitiates the classical complement cascade by binding to C1q. Basically serves as a bridge between C1q and bacteria
LPS can be cleaved into?
Lipid A and polysaccharide components. Lipid A is the portion of LPS that induces pro-inflammatory gene expression
Where is CRP produced?
CRP is synthesized primarily in the liver and is an acute phase reactant.
Gram positive walls have high levels of _________ whereas gram negative walls have high levels of __________.
lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan (gram +)
LPS and peptidoglycan (gram -)
Elevated CRP levels correlate with what condition?
Atherrosclerosis. CRP will co-localize with C4d (the first complement protein to be activated after C1q, classical pathway)
Are the innate immune receptors high affinity or low affinity? Why?
Low affinity. Because you want to be able to bind a wide array of bacteria with many different molecular structures.
How does LPS trasmit its signal intracellularly?
Binds TLR-4 associated with CD14 (GPI anchor bound membrane protein)
What type of cell walls do mycobacteria have?
mycolic acid and LAM
How does adjuvant work?
Adjuvant binds to a TLR and activates the immune system.
Collectin
collagen like lectin. Soluble proteins with tails containing collagen like AA sequences and heads that are globular which recognize Ag-Ab complexes, apoptotic cells, and pathogen (examples C1q, SP-A, SP-D)
What occurs with C1q deficient mice?
Decreased ability to clear apoptotic cell and cell debris, this results in an inflammatory process with the possibility of autoimmunity.
What type of molecules do the Scavenger Receptor superfamily recognize?
Transmembrane receptors that recognize molecular patterns on the surface of bacteria. Scavenger receptors aren't usually involved in signal transduction, they just strengthen association between bacteria and phagocytes
Cytokine storm
release of pro-inflammatory molecules (TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) via macrophages when bacteria enter the systemic circulation
What are the two functions of CRP?
It acts as an opsonin by binding bacteria and it intitiates the classical complement cascade by binding to C1q. Basically serves as a bridge between C1q and bacteria
Where is CRP produced?
CRP is synthesized primarily in the liver and is an acute phase reactant.
Elevated CRP levels correlate with what condition?
Atherrosclerosis. CRP will co-localize with C4d (the first complement protein to be activated after C1q, classical pathway)
How does LPS trasmit its signal intracellularly?
Binds TLR-4 associated with CD14 (GPI anchor bound membrane protein)
How does adjuvant work?
Adjuvant binds to a TLR and activates the immune system.
What is the function of TLRs?
TLRs activate signal cascade that leads to NFkappaB activation which induces pro-inflammatory cascade
Which TLRs recognize gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria, and viral products?
TLR2 recognizes Gram+, TLR3 Viral double stranded RNA, TLR4 Gram-, TLR5 Gram- flaggellin
Do TLRs recognize the same ligand?
No TLRs recognize different ligands. The common feature is that they all lead to NFkappaB activation and gene expression
What do IRF family proteins do?
IRF proteins become phosphorylated are translocated to the nucleus where they stimulate expression of Type I INFs (alpha and beta).
Which TLR activates the pathway leading to IRF protein stimulated expression of type I INFs?
TLR-3
NOD proteins
family of innate immune receptors that are located in the cytosol. Contain leucine rich repeat domain that recognizes ligand and a CARD domain which dimerizes with RICK and leads to NFkappaB.
What occurs in patients with NOD-2 mutations?
Associated with Crohn's Disease
What are the characteristics of NOD signaling proteins ?
Leu-rich repeats, CARD domain, cytosolic proteins that are activated when bacteria are transported across cell membrane.
What cytokine is prominent in a particular group of NOD proteins?
IL-1, IL-1 begins as a pro-hormone which is cleaved by caspases into IL-1B which is secreted out of the cell
What is Familial Mediterranean Disease Fever?
Episodic bouts of severe pain in the gut thought to be caused by a mutation in a NOD like receptor protein (pyrin). Treat by blocking IL-1B
How is NOD related to Gout?
Gout is characterized by monosodium urate crystal deposit in the joints. Monosodium urate crystals activate expression of IL-1B. NOD stimulated by monosodium crystals, caspase-1 activation, cleave pro-IL-1B to IL-1B.
What makes up the inflammasome?
IL-1B, caspase 1, and a NOD protein
NLRs
Nod-like receptors lead to activation of NFkappaB and caspase 1. Results in production of IL-1
What are the two roles of DCs?
Immature DCs antigen recognition and capture. Mature DCs antigen presentation
How are TLRs involved in DC maturation?
activation DC TLR by pathogen in the periphery shuts down production of chemokine receptors that led DC to periphery and upregulates receptors for chemokines that will lead DC to lymph node.
Why is adjuvant important?
Adjuvant stimulates pattern recognition receptor like the TLR, once this occurs you get increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. This will allow the APC to effectively present antigen to the T-cell
What chemokine is important in directing cells to the lymph nodes?
CCR7
What cytokines characterize early antiviral response?
Released by NK cells: INFalpha and INFbeta, TNF-alpha, APCs: IL-12. The INFs feedback to stimulate more IL-12 production from APCs
When a virus affects a cell what is the response?
early antiviral response from NK cells that degranulate, increase productino of IL-12 from APCs. TLR-3 is activated which activates NFkappaB and IRF pathways. Activation of IRF leads to p21, IL-15, FasL, IL-12
RLRs
activated by viral stimuli. Leads to activation of IRF, NFkappaB, and a strong antiviral response