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7 Cards in this Set

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What are 3 reasons why vaccines are so beneficial?
1. Generate protective immunity for the individual

2. Generate herd immunity for the population

3. Save money
What are the 2 main components of the influenza virus?
1. Hemagglutunun (HA) - attaches virus to cell receptor (major target for neutralizing antibodies)

2. Neuraminidase (N) - involved in the release of virus from cell

Note: Different strains of influenza have different variants of HA and N proteins
What is antigenic drift wrt influenza?

Antigenic shift?
Drift - the mutation of HA that creates altered epitopes that are no longer recognized by antibodies in some INDIVIDUALS

Shift - The reassortment of different viral genomes, creating a new HA that may not have been seen in ENTIRE POPULATION (ex: swine flu)
-This causes pandemics
What is the overall goal of vaccination?
The induction of a memory response
What are the 3 basic types of vaccines?
1. Live attenuated vaccine - use virus with reduced pathogenicity (Ex: grow virus in cow)

2. Inactivated Vaccines - exposure to denaturing agent results in loss of infectivity without loss of antigenicity

3. Fragment or subunit vaccine - pieces of virus or bacteria derived from the organism protein, peptide, or polysaccharide
What is the down side of inactivated, synthetic, or peptide vaccines?
1. Don't induce lifelong immunity

2. induce little cellular immunity (because can't infect cells)
What are adjuvants?
Items put in vaccine that help stimulate the immune system to help optimize the signaling to the adaptive immune system