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28 Cards in this Set

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Most allergic reaction fall into one of four major types. Which are the four major types
1.Type I- Immediate-IGE-Mediated
2.Type II- cytotoxic
3.Type III- immune complex-medaiated
4.Type IV-Delayed cell-meadiated
Type I of allergic reaction
-Also called IGE mediated Hypersensitivity
-The first exposure to antigent and it induces an IGE antibody response leading to sensitization
-The second exposure, antigens activate IGE antibodies on the mast cell causing it to degranulate
What happenes during the first exposure of type one of alleergic reaction- Hypersesitivity
- Antigen is taken up by dendritic cells APC and merged with MHC molecules
-APC prsents the antigen to T-cells
-Activated T-cells release cytokines that stimulate B-cells to produce plasma cells with secrete large amount of IGE
-IGE antibodies bind to mast cell receptors and the individual is not sensitized- which means that they are now derived from basophils
What happens during the second exposure of type ONE of allergic raction- Hypersensitivity
- Histamines, leukotrienes, prostagladins and cytokines are realeased
What are the three different LOCOLIZED anaphylaxis of type one allergic reaction
1.Hives- wheal and flare pattern due to the release of histamine which causes dialation of tiny BCs and leaking of plasma into area
2.Hay fever
3.Asthma-
Asthma-
leukotrienes and prostaglndins are responsile for bronchospasms
Hives-
characterized by wheal and flare pattern due to the release of histamine which causes dialation of tiny BCs and leaking of plasma into area
Generalized Anaphylaxis
-Antigen enters the bloodstream and becomes widespread and the reaction affects almost the entire
body (systemic)
-Can usually be controlled by epinephrine injections

eX. Bee stings peanuts and penicillin injection
Immunotherapy
also refered to as Desensitization is often effective in decreasing the Type I hypersensitivity state
Type II Hypersensitivity
1. Also called Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity because it utilizes antibodies that can destroy normal cells by complement lysis or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)
2. Generally occur within hours after exposure
3. Transfusion Reactions – the ABO blood groups are the major cause of hemolytic anemia in blood transfusion patients
A person with type A blood
A person with type B blood
A person with type O blood
A person with type AB blood
-A antigen/Antibody anto- B
-B antigen/ Antibody Anti-A
-no antigen/Antibody AB (BOTH)
-AB antigen/no anitibody
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
A) Also called Erythroblastosis fetalis
B) Results when mother is Rh- and baby is Rh+
C) Upon delivery, Rh+ antigens are transferred to the motherÕs bloodstream which causes her to produce anti-Rh antibodies

D) If the mother becomes pregnant again with an Rh+ child, the antibodies cross the placenta, enter the circulation of the fetus, and cause extensive fetal erythrocyte damage
Type III Hypersensitivity
Also called Immune Complex-Mediated Hypersensitivity
Small antigen-antibody complexes are often deposited in the walls of small blood vessels in skin, joints, and kidneys where they continue to cause inflammation and eventually tissue damage
This is called disseminated intravascular coagulation
The complexes can also precipitate causing clots to form in the small blood vessels leading to failure or death of vital organs
Examples of Type III Hypersensitivity are:
A) Arthus reaction – localized tissue death
B) Serum sickness – seen in individuals immunized with animal serum
Type IV Hypersensitivity
1. Also called Delayed Cell-Mediated Hypersensitivity
A) occurs within days after exposure
2. T-cells rather than antibodies are involved with this type
Examples of delayed hypersensitivity are:
A) Tuberculin skin test – a positive reaction to the protein antigens of the tuberculosis bacteria introduced under the skin
Contact hypersensitivity
Is mediated by T-cells that release cytokines when they come into contact with the same antigen
1) the cytokines cause inflammation which attracts macrophages to the site
2) these then release mediators that result in allergic dermatitis or contact dermatitis
Example of contact hypersensitivity
poison ivy, poison oak, nickel reactions, and latex reactions
Transplant Immunity
1. 4 types of transplants
A) Autografts – grafts from the same person
B) Isografts – grafts donated by a genetically identical twin
C) Allografts – grafts between non-identical humans
D) Xenografts – transplantation of tissue from a non-human organism
Transplantation rejection of allografts and xenografts are caused by
largely by Type IV cellular reaction by T cells and NK cells
MHC and HLA tissue typing is done in an effort to ensure that
no major tissue incompatibilities exist between patient and donor In addition, immunosuppressive drugs are taken to reduce rejection
Autonomic diaseas
occurs wheb the immune system of the body responds to its own tissue as if they were foreigh
Autoimmune reactions occur over a spectrum ranging from
Autoimmune reactions occur over a spectrum ranging from organ-specific to widespread response not limited to any one tissue
A) Organ-specific reactions
1) GraveÕs disease thyroid
2) Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus - pancreas
3) Myasthenia gravis - muscle
) Widespread reactions
) Widespread reactions
1) Rheumatoid arthritis
2) Systemic lupus erythematosus
Treatment of Autoimmune diseases
A) Usually treated with immunosuppressive drugs that kill dividing T-cells and thus control the response
B) Also treated with drugs that interfere with T-cell signaling such as cyclosporin
C) Steroids and other anti-inflammatory drugs are often used to relieve symptoms
D) Some patients require replacement therapy (for example: insulin for diabetics)
E) Transplantation of damaged organ is a last resort
Immunodeficiency disorders -
condition in which there is a deficiency or defect in immune cells