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22 Cards in this Set

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1. describe 4-5 ways in which Ab, either alone or in combo, can help to clear or neuralize antigen (i.e.bacteria, viruses, toxins)
a. Ab enhancement of phagocytois (opsonins) w/ or w/o complement
b. ab+complement mediated lysis
c. ab+antigen complexes
d. ab nutralization of toxins and viruses
e. ab interference w/ virs/bacterial cell attachment
f. role of IgE in anti-parsitie defense
g. ab depedent cellular cytoxoicity (ADCC)
h. role of secretory IgA in protecting muscosal surfaces
What cell types mediate ADCC or the antibody-dependent celuular cytotoxity? (list the ...steps involved)
Antibodies mediate the ADCC and the ADCC rsn is done thru NK cells
1. AB binds antigens on the surface of target cells
2. The Fc receptors on NK cells recognize the Ab bound to the antigen
3. crosslinkg of the Fc receptors signsls the NK cell to kill the target cell
4. target cell dies by apoptosis
5. IgG and IgE antibodies are the main ones used
3. What types of infections would you expect to see in a person with a total deficiecy in Ab production?
all kinds of infections including bacterial and prarsitic..fungal might not matter b/c that is part of your innate immune ssytem that fights it like neuts
4. Describe the process of antigen recognition and cell lysis involving cytotoxic T cells.
These CTL's which are usually CD*_ are known to kill virus-infectrd and tumor cells. It is antigen specific and must have the antigen presented by MHC class I
How do cytotoxic t cells cause lysis of cell?
the cell must have MHC class I w/antigenic peptides in the bindng groove and causes the cell lysis by inducing apoptosis or release of pore forming proteins like perforin. The CTL's also have graunules with proteolytic NZ like TNF alpha and TNF beta wich can damage the target cell.
What intracellular killing mechs are present w/in activatred macs?
enhanced upon activation w/cytokines, INF gamma is a potent activator**(produced by activated T cells and NK cells)
What are some other activators of macs
TNF alpha and bacterial endotoxin-both are abundant during bacterial infection
How are macs phagocytoic?
by oxygen depednet and oxygen independent mechanisms,
2. anti-tumor activity
3. secretory cells like cytokines
4. proinflammatory mediators, like IL-1 and TNF
What is produced by macs that favor T cell response and cause adaptive immune response?
IL10 and IL12
what does INF gamma do?
most important cytokine in activating macs fro intracellular killing
8. what is a granuloma?
space occuping inflammory lesion that form when the body is attempting to wall off an infection
Why do granulomas occur?
happens when cytokine-producing T cells and macs continue to accuulate @ site (b/c macs didn't kill properly), this traps the organ by forming an continous sheet of macs with giant multinecleadted cell, lymphs, etc
9. what's the basic diff b/n TH1 and TH2 type T-lymphocytes?
TH1 cells will make IL2 and INF-G(helps with delayed response HS) and TH2 produces Il-4/5/6/and10 and will help with B cell activation, proflieration, adn Ab witching.
IL4 do?
activates antibody IgE
10. What's primary role of NK cells in the immune response?
lymphocytes w/no antigen receptor (although Ab can provide the spcificty and activate NK cells via ADCC)
What major role do NK cells play?
destory virus infected cells; allow suppression of killing if the cell expresses MHCI or if they have a target cell that is lacking the MHCI, then they have receptors activated to casue NK cells to kill taret cells.
what allows the NK cells to kill?
cells infected with viurses usulaly stop producing MHC I and the NK cell is still able to kill thi sone b/c of the lack of MHCI
what are perforin and NO? What are their roles in host defenses?
perfororin & NO-released by Tc cells and cause a pore inthe membrane of the virus-infected cell and tumor cells
What would be the mmunolgic advantge of using an oral or nasal influenza vaccine in place of or in addition ot the current parenteteral vaccine?
The mucosal membrane is where you encounter infectious orgs; these lymphocytes that are in this mucosal system consists of wiedly distributed cells and are able to migrate BACK TO PLACE of ORIGIN--impt concept
What aspects of immune respone are most effective against an intracellular pathogen? extracellular pathogen?
Most bacteria are extracellular so antibodies, phagocytic cells are helpful with these orgs. Fungi are intracuyellar and are more likely to respond to naturla and innate defeneses like neturs. Parasities everything is in play, in addition to normal immune responses things like IgE and esoinii;shlep.
What are CAM and Chemotactic factors?
How cells know where to go
What are imp mechanisms to fight antibodies?
phagotoctyotis--neutrs--NOT ab