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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three major lineages of Hematopoiesis.
aka the cell types of blood
Erythroid lineages
1) RBCs
2) megakaryocytes (platelets)
RBCs are _______ when mature
platelets come from
Myeloid lineage
1) Mast cells
2) Basophils
3) Granulocytes
4) Dendritic cells
5) Eosinophils
6) Neutrophils
granulocytes also known as
polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMN
Granulocytes are
Eosinophils raise in response to
parasitic worms and allergies
Basophils increase in response to
an inflammatory response
Neutrophils are ________ and the ________ WBC
phagocytic; most abundant
phagocytic; APC
Dendritic cells
phagocytic; APC (some lymphoid origin)
Mast cells are released in _______ response and _________
inflammatory; allergies
cells of Lymphoid origin are (2)
Lymphocytes (B, T)
NK cells (Large granular lymphocytes)
NK cells are also known as
Large granular lymphocytes
WBC differential percentages
Neutrophils 40-70%
Lymphocytes 20-50%
Monocytes 2-10%
Eosinophils 1-6%
Basophils <1%
megakaryocyte involved in _________ and are ________
platlet formation, wound repair
-is multinucleated
Erythrocyte involved in
Oxygen transport
Small Lymphocyte involved in
Production of Ab (B cells) or cytotoxic and helper functions (T cells)
Plasma cells involved in
Fully differentiated B cell that secretes Ab
Natural Killer Cells involved in
-Kills cells infected with certain viruses
-Contains LGLs (large granulocyte lymphocytes)
Neutrophils involved in
-Phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms
-contains PMNs (polymorphonuclear leukocytes)
Eosinophils involved in
-Killing of Ab coated parasites through release of granule contents
-contain stained red granules
Fx unknown
Dendritic cell Function
Activation of T cells and initiation of adaptive immune response
Mast cell
Expulsion of parasites from body through release of granules containing histamine and other active agents
-Circulating precursor cell to macrophage
-lagest of WBC
-located in blood
-phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms. Activation of T cells and initiation of immune response.
-located in tissues
Development of blood cells is stimulated by _________
Growth factors or colony stimulating factors (CSF) and other cytokines.
Most colony stimulating factors (CSF) are produced by ___________

Others activated by __________
bone marrow stromal cells

T helper cells & Macrophages
Expression ________ by precursors at various time points AND _______ determine commitment to a distinct lineage
of CSF receptors / binding of CSF
Types of CSF
Multilineage CSF (aka IL-3 (interleukin 3))
Granulocyte-Macrophage CSF (GM-CSF)
Erthropoietin (EPO)
Multilineage CSF – IL-3 (interleukin 3)
-Acts early on in hematopoiesis
-Produced by activated T cells, mast cells, etc
-hematopoiesis inducer (when infection)
-Produced by bone marrow cells, T cells, B cells, macrophages, etc.
Describe site of hematopoiesis changes during development
-First in yolk sac
-Fetal liver – early months of development
-Fetal spleen – 3rd – 7th month of development
-Bone marrow – begins by 4th – 5th month.
By delivery, almost all hematopoiesis is due to bone marrow
In Adults – bone marrow of skull, ribs, sternum, vertebral column, pelvis and femur this continues throughout life
Steady state production of blood cells to replace dead/lost cells
Neutrophil -
T cells –
RBCs - ~120 days

Neutrophil - ~3-5 days
(largest concentration in blood to limit infection early on)

T cells – 20-30 years
number of new blood cells a day
~4 X 10^11 new blood cells/day
Function of Programmed cell death (PCD; apoptosis)
Helps to maintain steady state level of- all cells
Leukemias/lymphomas can result from:
-Increase CSF receptor expression

-Increased production of CSFs
example that could cause increase CSF receptor expression
Viral infection (ex. HTLV-1 and IL-2R) causes increased cytokine receptor expression
Name and discribe the two major types of organs of immune system
1)Primary lymphoid organs
“central”- where cells originate or mature
Bone marrow and thymus

2)Secondary lymphoid organs
These are peripheral
They are the sites where immune response is generated (recognition of Ag)
Lymph node (LN), spleen, blood, lymphatics, and Gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)
Pathogens from site of infection reach lymph nodes via _______
lymphocytes and lymph returnto the blood via _______
Naive lymphocytes arrive at lymph nodes in __________
arterial blood
Thoracic duct
brings lymphatics to
Left subclavian vein
Bone marrow functions in ________
Production and maturation of B and T cells
Thymus functions in _______
Maturation of T cells
Anatomy of thymus consists of
Cortex & Medulla
In thymus T cells are testing in their ability to discern _______; this percentage of T cells undergo apoptosis _______, when these cells are not terminated the result can be __________
self from non-self/99%/autoimmune disease
Anatomy of the LN
Medulla – inner portion

Cortex – outer portion

Paracortex – between medulla and cortex
T cells and dendritic cells (APCs)
Medulla consists of
Primarily plasma cells that secrete Ab into blood
Cortex consists of
Mostly B cells, macrophages, and Follicular dendritic cells
Paracortex consists of
T cells and dendritic cells (APCs)
Germinal center
where B cells are activated and developing
Afferent lymph vessels
bring in Ag to the LN (DCs can bring in Ag as well)
Effector cells and/or Abs leave LN via ____________
Efferent lymph vessels
Draining LN
LNs closest to “an area”
Describe artery trafficking in LN
arteries carry in cells/Ags.
High endothelial of post-capillary venules (HEV)
-a/k/a post-capillary venule
bring in lymphocytes to LN
-Cells pass between endothelial cells to enter LN
LN and the immune response
Thousands in body
Increase in size during an immune response
Filter blood and trap blood-borne Ags
Two general areas of spleen (not as distinctly separated)
1) Red pulp
2) White pulp
Red pulp
remove “old” RBCs (Mf engulf)
White pulp
lymphoid areas involved in immune responses to blood-borne pathogens
Pathogens & lymphocytes enter through __________
blood (not lymphatics as with LN)
Periarteriolar lymphoid sheath (PALS) of white pulp
T cell rich are surrounding splenic arteries
Marginal zone & Germinal center of white pulp
B cell areas
spleen consists of
red pulp
white pulp
transverse section of white pulp of spleen consists of (outer to inner)
marginal zone
marginal sinus
B cell carona around germinal center
PALS (mostly T cells around center arteriole)
“Specialized” lymphoid tissue
Areas of exposure to large numbers of microbes have “adapted” and have specialized lymphoid tissues
“Specialized” lymphoid tissue
MALT – musoca-associated LT

SALT – skin-associated LT
MALT consists of
B cells producing IgA (secretory IgA)
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (gamma delta T cells)
MALT is subdivided into
GALT – gut-associated lymphoid tissue

BALT – bronchial-associated LT)
examples of GALT
Tonsils, adenoids, appendix, Peyer’s patches and mesenteric LN (draining LN)
M cells in Peyers patches function to
-captures Ag
– release Ab
SALT – skin-associated lymphoid tissue consists of
Dendritic cells (Langerhans cells) and tissue macrophages
and gamma delta T cells
Since Ags can enter the body at multiple sites, how can 1:10^6 Ag-specific T and/or B cells find their Ag?
1) Draining LN – “meeting place” – keep Ag in area to interact with lymphocytes this results in products/effector cells leaving LN to go to site of Ag

1)Lymphocyte recirculation – movement from blood to lymphatics and back until contact with Ag
Lymphocyte homing receptors
Molecules on the surface of lymphocytes that interact with receptors on tissue cells
Lymphocyte homing receptors have ________ expression based on stage of lymphocyte (maturity) and activation status
Funtion of Lymphocyte homing receptors
1) help immature T cells home to the thymus
2)Activated T/B cells increase expression to bind to LN tissues (or elsewhere)
examples of Lymphocyte homing receptors
L-selectin, CLA, VLA-4, CD44
Vascular addressins
-cause an increased expression on High endothelial of post-capillary venules (HEVs) of LN tissue during an inflammatory response in that tissue site
-attract effector cells to LN
examples of Vascular addressins
CD34, glyCAM-1, E-selectin, VCAM-1
Process of Ag recognition - Skin
1) Damage - Ag exposure/damage to skin

2) Carried to LN - Ag carried to regional (draining) LN by Langerhan’s cells (DC)

3) "Sample Ag" - Lymphocytes from blood (HEV) get into LN and “sample” Ags (TCR, BCR)

4) Effector cells, Abs, memory cells -- Effector cells, Abs, memory cells can leave LN through efferent lymphatics
-Lymphatics → thoracic
duct → blood → site of
infection = fight

Memory cells (T and B)
will stay in skin for
future reaction
High endothelial of post-capillary venules