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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
properties of cytokines
modulate immune response
-short half life in serum
-produced by and act upon lots of cells
-many effects on single or variable cell types; redundant
-influence the ezpression and function of other cytokines
-recognized by target cell by specific receptors
what is a cytokine and how do they work?
-type I cytokines in 4 alpha-helical bundles
-found as dimers
-recognized by distinct set of receptors
-many receptors share common sub-units
how do cyto kine receptors signal?


defiency in what would show a predictable loss of cytokine response
receptors cluster on membrane
-this recruits the JAK which recriut the STAT
-these are phosphorylated and form dimers
-dimers move into nucleus and bind to target genes and initiate transcription

-JAK or STAT
how does cytokine get turned off?
recruitment of comp inhibitors
-phophatases
what does innate immunity mean?
immediate response to infection. occurs prior to any type of antien specific response (even a secondary response)
cytokines that influence innate immunity

-TNF family!!
cytokines/receptors that lead to cell activation and proliferation (TNF and BAFF) and those that lead to cell death (FAS/fas)
the cytokine with the most immedieate response to a bacterial infection induced by LPS
TNF
two sources of TNF


-when is TNF available for export
LPS activated macrophages (most responsible)
-mast cells
-right after mast cell degranulation
TNF has two activation roles
localized signaling and systemic
4 responses from low levels of TNF at site of release
-increase expression of adhesion molecules on surface of endothelium
-upregulates killing efficiency of neutrophils and eosinophils
-increase class I protein expression
-induce other cells to produce other cytokine to augment response
4 responses for high quantities
-fever
-induces cells to make IL-1 and IL-6
-upregulates acute phase proteins by liver to increase phagocytosis
-suppresses bone marrow from dividing
IL-1

made by what?

functions like what other cytokine and what does it do?
-what does it do at high levels?
-inhibited by?
made by activated macrophag/monocyte via TNF, LPS, or other IL-1

-TNF; enhances local inflammatory response (increases migration of leukocytes, promotes coagulation)
-fever, acute phase proteins, wasting
-naturally occurring proteins that bind to IL-1 receptors but dont initiate a response.
IL-6
-functions
-function similar to IL-1 and TNF and requires these to be activated.
-similar action on liver.
-activates b cell diferentiation
the type I interferons
interferon alpha and Beta
alpha

beta
~20 proteins made by many cells but mostly macrophages

-single protein made by mostly all cells
interferon functions
-anti-viral
-induce target cells to express enzymes that interfere with rna/dna replication
-inhibit target cell from proliferating,
-upregulate expression of the class I MHC
-decrease class II
-activate NK
IL-10

-produced by
produced by T and B, monocytes, and keratinocytes.
-inhibits production of many cytokines like IL-2, IL-3, IFN-y, GM-CSF and TNF
-inibitor of macrrophage activation
adaptive immunity cytokines
IL-2, IL-4, interferon-Y, IL-12
IL-2
made by?
function?
made by CD4 Tcells upon activations. acts autocrine or paracrine.
-t cell growth and differentiation factor
-increases nk killing capacity
IL-4
-make by
function
-CD4 Th2 t cells
-mast cells
-induces IgE
-blocks activation of macrophages (anti inflamatory)
-growth factor for mast cells
-expression of adhesion receptors
intereron-Y
-made by
-function
TH1
-anti-viral/anti proliferative
-activated macrophages to kill phagcytosed bacteria
--upregulate NK and neutrophil
-TH0 to TH1
IL-12
-who makes it
-who recieves it
-what make the maker make it
-function
-B and monocytes
-NK and T
-TNF alpha induces monocytes to make it

-activator of NK
-increase activity of CD8 T cells
makes CD 4 TH0 into TH1
antigen+ IL-12, IFN-y, IL-2
Chemokines
-comment on receptor and chemokines
-what specifies response?
-recruits cells into sites
-inflammatory response
-all receptors and chemokines are the same
-specificity is expression of receptor (who makes and who recieves the chemokine)
6 COLONY STIMULATING FACTORs

s
-C kit and ligand; stem cell maintenance and expansion
-IL-3; activates bone marrow/makes mast cells
-GM CSF; neutrophil/macrophage devp
-Granulocyte CSF; makes neutrophils and eosinophils
-IL-7; B cell/T cell growth factor