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60 Cards in this Set

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leukocyte
A white blood cell
lysozyme
An enzyme found in tears, milk, saliva, mucus, and other body fluids that destroys bacteria by digesting their cell walls.
monocyte
An agranulocyte specialized to migrate into the tissues and transform into a macrophage.
hemolysis
The rupturing of erythrocytes from such causes as a hypotonic medium, parasitic infection, or a complement reaction.
Cellular immunity
Based on the action of lymphocytes that directly attack diseased or "suspicious: cells, including those of transplanted tissues, cells infected with viruses or parasites, and cancer cells.
Cytolysis
The rupture and destruction of a cell by such agents as complement proteins and hyptonic solutions.
Cytoxic T cell
A lymphocyte that directly attacks and destroys infected body cells, cancerous cells, and the cells of tranplanted tissues.
Degranulation
Exocytosis and disappearance of cytoplasmic granules, especially in platelets and granulocytes.
Erythropoiesis
The production of erythrocytes (red blood cells)
Globulin
A globular protein such as enzyme, antibody, or albumin; especially a family of proteins in the blood plasma that includes albumin, antibodies, fibrinogen, and prothrombin.
helper T cell
A type of lymphocyte that performs a central coordinating role in humoral and cellular immunity; target of the human immuodificiency virus (HIV).
Hemocrit
The percentage of blood volume that is composed of erythrocytes.
heme
The nonprotein, iron-containing prosthetic group of hemoglubin or myoglobin; oxygen binds to its ferrous ion.
hemocytoblast
An undifferentiated stem cell of the bone marrow that can give rise to any of the formed elements of blood.
hemoglobin
The red gas-transport pigment of an erythrocyte.
hemopoiesis
Production of any of the formed elements of blood.
Tonsil
A patch of lymphatic tissue located at the entrance in the pharynx, where they guard against ingested and inhaled pathogens. Each is covered by an epithelium and has deep pits called tonsillary crypts.
Phagocytosis
A form of endocytosis in which a cell surrounds a foreign particle with pseudopods and engulfs it, enclosing it in a cytoplasmic vesicle called a phagosome.
Antigen
Any large molecule capable of binding to an antibody and triggering an immune response.
Antigen-presenting cell (APC)
A cell that phagoyctizes an antigen and displays fragments of it on its surface for recognition by other cells of the immune system; chiefly macrophages and B lympocytes.
Lymph node
A small organ found along the course of a lymphatic vessel that filters the lymph and contains lymphocytes and macrophages, which response to antigens in the lymph.
Thymus
A lymphatic organ in the mediastiunum ; the site where T lymphocytes differentiate and become immunocompetent.
Complement
A system of plasma proteins involved in nonspecific defense against pathogens.
What are the cardinal signs of inflamation?
Redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
Method that Natural Killer cells use to kill pathogens
Attack and lyse the cells. Specifically, they secrete perforins which bind to the enemy cell surface and make holes in its membrane.
B cells that have taken in a large antigen must be stimulated by a ___ ___ ___ before they can react to that antigen
Helper T cell
Lymph flows primarily because of this force:
contractions of the lymphatic vessels
Receiving gamma globulin as a treatment for rabies would be considered what type of immunity?
Active passive immunity
Receiving gamma globulin as a treatment for rabies would be considered what type of immunity?
Active passive immunity
Mechanisms of nonspecific resistance
Physical barriers
Chemical barriers
Phagocytic cells
Antimicrobial proteins
Inflammation
Fever
Megakaryocyte
A large cell with derivation order Hemocytoblast -> Megakaryoblast-> Megakaryocyte. It has multiple sets of chromosomes. Most live in the bone marrow. Exhibits infoldings of the plasma membrane that divide its marginal cytoplasm into little compartments. These break off and form platlets.
Process for expired erythrocytes and Hemoglobin
1. RBCs lose elasticity with age
2. RBSs breakdown while squeezing through capillaries.
3. Cell fragments are phagcoytized by macrophages in the spleen an dliver.
4. Globin portion of hemoglobin hydrolyzed to aminot acids which are reused.
5. Iron is transported to the liver
6. Billverdin -> liver -> bile -> feces
Process for expired erythrocytes and Hemoglobin
1. RBCs lose elasticity with age
2. RBSs breakdown while squeezing through capillaries.
3. Cell fragments are phagcoytized by macrophages in the spleen an dliver.
4. Globin portion of hemoglobin hydrolyzed to aminot acids which are reused.
5. Iron is transported to the liver
6. Billverdin -> liver -> bile -> feces
Thrombopoiesis
The production of platlets
T lymphocyte
A type of lymphocyte involved in nonspecific defense, humoral immunity, and cellular immunity
Four types of T cells
Helper, cytotoxic, suppressor and natural killer cells.
B Cells
A lymphocyte that functions as an antigen-presenting cell and in humoral immunity, differentiates into an antibody-producing plasma cell.
Macrophage
Any cell of the body, other than a lekocyte, that is specialized for phagocytosis; usually derived from blood monocytes and often functioning as antigen-presenting cells.
Neutrophil
A granulocyte, usually with a multilobed nucleus, that serves especially to destroy bacteria by means of phagocytosis, intracelluar digestion, and secretion of bactericidal chemicals.
Plasma
The noncellular portion of the blood
Pseudopod
A temporary cytoplasmic extension of a cell used for locomotion (ameboid movement) and phagocytosis.
Inflammation
A complex of tissue responses to trauma or infection serving to ward off a pathogen and promote tissue repair
Interferon
Polypeptides secreted by cells that have been invaded by viruses. They diffuse to neighboring cells and slow down protein generation in those cells.
Vaccination
Consists of either dead or attenuated pathogens which can stimulate an immune response but normally cause little or no discomfort or disease.
Platlet
A formed element of the blood derived from the peripheral cytoplasm of a megakaryocte, known especially for its role in stopping bleeding but also serves in dissolving blood clots, stimulating inflammation, promoting tissue growth and destroying bacteria.
Reticular cell
A delicate, branching macrohage found in the reticular connective tissue of the lymphatic organs, and in lesser amounts elsewere.
Mast cell
A connective tissue cell, similar to a basophil, that secretes histamine, heparin, and other chemicals involved in inflammation; often concentrated along the course of blood capillaries.
Interleukin
A hormonelike chemical messenger from one leukocyte to another, serving as a means of communication and coordination during immune responses.
lympathic system
An organ system consisting of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, the tonsils, spleen, and thymus; functions include tissue fluid recovery and immunity.
lymph
The fluid contained in lymphatic vessls and lymph nodes, produced by the absorption of tissue fluid.
lympocytes
A class of relatively small agranuocytes with numerous types and roles in nonspecific defense, humoral immunity and cellular immunity.
Erythropoietin
A hormone that is secreted by the kidneys and liver in response to hypoxemia and stimulates erthropoiesis.
Eosinophil
A granulocyte; phagocytizes antigen-antibody complexes, allergens, and inflammatory chemicals and secretes enzymes that combat parastic infections.
Humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity
An indirect attack that employs antibodies. Circulating antibodies (in body fluids or on cell membranes of some lymphocytes) that bind to bacteria, toxins, and extracellular viruses, tagging them for destruction.
antibody
A protein of gamma globulin class that reacts with an antigen; found in the blood plasma, in other body fluids, and on the surfaces of certain leukocytes and their derivatives.
Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC)
These proteins are stucturally unique to every person. They act as "identification tags" that label every cell of your body as belonging to you.
Immunity system
A population of cells, including leukocytes and macrophages, that occur in most organs of the body and protect against foreign organism, some foreign chemicals, and cancerous or other aerrant host cells.
Chemotaxis
The movement of a cell along a chemical concentration gradient, especially the attraction of neutrophils to chemicals released by pathogens or inflamed tissues.
The most important difference in antigen recognition between B cells and T cells
B Cells can recognize an epitope alone, whereas T cells can recognize an epitope only when it is present on the surface of a self-cell in association with an MHC molecule.
What is an Epitope?
Immynologically active regions on a complex antigen, the regions that actuall bind to a B or T cell's receptor.