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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Stephen F. Austin founds the first American community in Texas
Mexico closes Texas to further American immigration
Santa Anna invades Texas
Texas declares its independence from Mexico
Fall of the Alamo
Goliad massacre
Battle of San Jacinto
During James K. Polk’s administration
The United States expanded by 50 percent
Annexation of Texas
Gained half of the vast Oregon territory through negotiations with Britain
Claimed California and New Mexico
Expansion and immigration were linked
Newcomers and Natives
Between 1815 and 1860, 5 million European immigrants reached the United States
1840 to 1860: 4.2 million
1845 to 1854: 3 million
Those from Ireland crowded into the urban areas of New England, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania
Those from Germany settled in Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Missouri
Expectations and Realities
Religious freedom
Economic betterment
Cities, rather than farms, attracted most antebellum immigrants
Irish Contributions
Dug canals
Built railroads
The Germans
In 1860 there was no German nation-state
Immigrants from this area thought of themselves as:
They included:
The Irish
Three waves of Irish immigration between 1815 and the mid-1820s
Most Irish immigrants were Protestants
Between 1845 and the early 1850s (1.8 million)
Half the Irish immigrants were single adult women
Immigrant Politics
Once settled in the United States many immigrants became politically active

Political organizations could help them find
The West and Beyond (1840)
American West = the area between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River

Far West = the fertile regions beyond the Rockies
Spain, and later Mexico
Spanish-speaking people
Spanish Missions
Political goals
Economic goals
Religious goals
20,000 natives lived on the lands of the twenty-one California missions
Late 1820s
Mexican independence
New government’s decision to secularize the missions
Ambitious government officials
Private ranchers
Mexican government began to encourage American colonization
Bring in manufactured goods
Gain protection against Indian attacks
7,000 Americans lived in Texas (more than double the Mexican population there)
Antonio López de Santa Anna (President of Mexico 1834)
Restricted the power of the individual states
Actions ignited a series of balloons
Texas Revolution
Siege to San Antonio (Alamo)
The Mexican army killed all the Alamo’s defenders, including the already dead
Mexican troops massacred 350 Texan prisoners at Goliad
Battle of San Jacinto April 21, 1836
“Remember the Alamo!”
“Remember Goliad!”
In fifteen minutes
Killed 600
Captured the General
Went out for pizza afterward
The Overland Trails
The Politics of Expansion, 1840-1846
Westward expansion raised the question of whether the United States should annex Texas
At the start of the 1840s western issues received little attention in a nation concerned with issues relating to economic recovery
Internal improvements
Slavery clouded every discussion of Texas
Manifest Destiny
Election of 1844 demonstrated the strength of national support for the annexation of Texas
Popular sentiment for expansion reflected a growing conviction that America’s natural destiny was to expand into Texas and all the way to the Pacific Ocean
Origins of the Mexican-American War
Long-standing grievance lay in the failure of the Mexican government to pay $2 million in debts owed to U.S. citizens
Alamo and Goliad massacre
Issue of Texas
Mexico too weak to negotiate
Mexico chose to fight over territory that it had already lost (Texas) and where its hold was feeble (California and New Mexico)
The Mexican American War
After Polk’s election, Congress passed a resolution (February 1845) annexing Texas
Polk supported Texas’ claim that the Rio Grande was their southern border, despite Mexico’s claim that the Nueces River (100 miles farther north) was the boundary
The Texas Polk proposed to annex was far larger than the Texas that had gained independence from Mexico
July 4, 1845 Texas voted to accept annexation
Annexation Negotiations
Early 1845 a new Mexican government agreed to negotiate with the U.S.
November 1845 Polk dispatched John Slidell to Mexico City to negotiate
U.S. Terms of Negotiation:
Mexico agree to recognize the annexation of Texas with the Rio Grande as the border
U.S. assume the debt owed by Mexico to U.S. citizens
U.S. offer $25 million for California and New Mexico
Failed Negotiations
Mexican government had weakened and by the time John Slidell reached Mexico City, General José Herrara refused to meet with him
Polk order General Zachary Taylor to move his troops to the Rio Grande, hoping to provoke a Mexican attack
The War
Most European observers expected Mexico to win since its army was four times larger and it was fighting on home soil
Although the Mexican forces had outnumbered the U.S. forces in almost every battle, it could not match the superior artillery or the superior logistics and organization of the Americans
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo February 2, 1848
Mexico ceded Texas with the Rio Grande boundary, New Mexico, and California
From this cession later came the states of New Mexico, California, Nevada, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming
The U.S. assumed the debts of the Mexican government to American citizens and paid Mexico $15 million
The War’s Effects on Sectional Conflict
Sectional conflict sharpened between 1846 and 1848
Many northerners were coming to see slavery in the territories as a profoundly disruptive issue that could not be solved by extending the 36°30‘ line
Wilmot Proviso
A young Democratic congressman from Pennsylvania, David Wilmot, introduced an amendment to the appropriations bill in August 1846
The amendment stipulated that slavery be prohibited in any territory acquired by the negotiations
Election of 1848
The Whigs nominated General Zachary Taylor as their candidate
The Democrats nominated Lewis Cass of Michigan
Taylor captured a majority of the electoral votes in both the North and the South
Election of 1848
The Whigs nominated General Zachary Taylor as their candidate
The Democrats nominated Lewis Cass of Michigan
Taylor captured a majority of the electoral votes in both the North and the South
The California Gold Rush
An American carpenter discovered gold in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains nine days before the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo was signed
By December 1848 pamphlets with such titles as The Emigrant’s Guide to the Gold Mines
Affects of Gold Rush on California
Overland emigrants to California rose from 400 in 1848 to 44,000 in 1850
California’s population swelled from 15,000 in the summer of 1848 to 250,000 by 1852
Gold rushers came from all over the world; if you walked through a miners’ camp you would hear
Affects of Gold Rush on California
Spanish hamlet of Yerba Buena exploded into city of San Francisco
Population of 150 to 50,000
Ethnic and racial tensions spilled into the city from the mining fields
Issue of slavery became an immediate issue in the West
Massive immigration of 1840s changed face of American politics
Wrapped in the language of Manifest Destiny, expansion appealed to Americans
Victorious over Mexico and enriched by the discovery of gold in California, Americans simultaneously counted the blessings of expansion and feared its costs