• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/33

Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The status of being protected against an infectious disease
Immunity
A preparation that uses an altered or killed microorganism to produce active immunity to disease.
Vaccine or Immunizing agent
A type of immunity that is achieved when the antigen or altered microorganism, is injected into the body, and natural antibodies are produced against it.
Active immunity
A type of immunity is obtained when previously formed antibodies are injected into the body (provides faster immunity, short lived, lasting only few weeks or months).
Passive immunity
Agents that provide active immunity
diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine(DTaP)(Tripedia, Infanrix)

diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Pediarix)

poliovirus vaccine, inactivated (IPV, Salk vaccine)(Poliovax)

Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (Hib)

Haemophilus b and hepatitis B vaccine (Comvax)

measles, mumps, rubella virus vaccine, live, (MMR)(M-M-R II)

varicella virus vaccine, live (Varivax)

diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, adsorbed (DT, Td)

tetanus toxoid, USP; tetanus vaccine, BP

influenza virus vaccine (Fluvirin,Fluzone)

hepatitis A virus vaccine, inactivated (Havrix, Vaqta)

hepatitis B vaccine (Recombivax HB, Engerix-B)

pneumococcal vaccine, polyvalent (Pneumovax 23)

pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (Prevnar)
This vaccine is prepared from inactivated acelluar pertussis.
diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine(DTaP)(Tripedia, Infanrix)

Route(s): IM

Side effects:
Local reations of erythmia & swelling @ the injection site
Mild fever
Malaise

Note:
Immunocompromised individuals will have diminished immunologic response.
This is the 5-in-1 vaccine available & it has the ability to greatly reduce the number of vaccine injections neccessary for infants & young children.
diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Pediarix)

Route(s): IM

Note:
It is a suspension & should be shaken vigoursly before administration.
Side effects of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Pediarix)
Injection-site reactions such as:
Pain
Swelling
Redness
Fever

Warning:
It is contraindicated in infants with known sensitivity to any component of the vaccine including yeast, neomycin, & polymyxin.
A non-infectious suspension containing three strains of poliovirus.
poliovirus vaccine, inactivated (IPV, Salk vaccine)(Poliovax)

Route(s): IM

Note:
The major disadv. of the formely used LIVE oral polio vaccine was the risk of associated paralytic poliomyelitis.
This vaccine is a noninfectious bacteria-derived vaccine used to prevent Haemophilus influenzae infections in infants & young children.
Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (Hib)

Route(s): IM

Note:
There are several diff. types of conjugated vaccine. Whatever type is chosen, it should be continued for the duration of the immunization schedule.
This combination vaccine may be used in children under 5 yrs. of age but not for infant under 6 weeks of age.
Haemophilus b and hepatitis B vaccine (Comvax)


Note:
May be used as a subsequent dose if the newborn only had one dose of the hepatitis B vaccine.
measles, mumps, rubella virus vaccine, live, (MMR)(M-M-R II)

Route(s): subQ
Less optimal if administered before 15 mos. of age and if it is administered early because of a community epidemic.

Side effects:
Minimal, but may experience a low grade fever, & light pink rash.
This vaccine stimulates immunity to varicella virus (chicken pox).
varicella virus vaccine, live (Varivax)

Route(s): IM

Note:
Development of antibodies following vaccination does not occur in all cases.
This agent is used for boosting immunity to diptheria & tetanus when pertussis immunization is not necessary. It is used in late childhood & adulthood.
diptheria and tetanus toxoids, adsorbeb (DT, Td)

Route(s): IM
tetanus toxoid, USP; tetanus vaccine, BP

Route(s): IM
A preparation of the formaldeyde-treated-by-products of the tetanus bacillus Clostridium tetani

Effective serum level is sustained for 10 yrs. after the booster dose.

Boosters can be given as often as every 5 yrs.
influenza virus vaccine (Fluvirin, Fluzone)

Route(s): IM
This vaccine contains virus material from several diff. strains of influenza A & B.

Prepared new every year based on viruses seen at various places in the world.

Recommended annually.
influenza virus vaccine live, intranasal (Flumist)
This intranasal form is recommended for persons 5 to 49 yrs. of age.

Immunized individuals should avoid contact with immunocompromised persons in the same household.
hepatitis A virus, inactivated (Havrix, Vaqta)

Route(s): IM
This vaccine is a noninfectious inactivated virus vaccine used for individuals at high risk for Hep. A especially children in less developed regions.
hepatitis B vaccine (Recombivax HB, Engerix-B)

Route(s): IM
Is a noninfectioius subunit viral vaccine containing hep. B surface antigen.

It is prepared from the strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using recombinant DNA technology.

At least 90% of childrend & adults develop antibodies. 3 doses are necessary, first 2 given 1 month apart, & the 3rd 6 months after the 1st dose.
pneumococcal vaccine, polyvalent (Pneumovax 23)

Route(s): IM
Is a sterile solution containing antigenic polysaccharides extracted from Streptomyces pneumoniae.

It is used to stimulate immunity to 23 types of pneumonia. Good for 5 yrs.

It is recommended for adults over 50 yrs. of age.
pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (Prevnar)

Route(s): IM
Is used for the active immunization of infants & toddlers against invasive disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

It should administered at 2,4,6, and 12 to 15 mos. of age.

For children only
Agents that provide passive immunity
diphtheria antitoxin (IM Prophylactic), (IM, IV Therapeutic)

tetanus antitoxin (IM, subQ Prophylactic), (IV Therapeutic)

tetanus immune human globulin (IM Prophylactic) (IM Therapeutic)

botulism antitoxin-clostridium botulin

pertussis immune human globulin

mumps immune human globulin

immune human serum globulin-for dysgammaglobulinemia therapy

hepatitis B immune globulin

Rho (D) immune human globulin (RhoGAM)
Rho (D) immune human globulin (RhoGAM)

Route(s): IM
A passive immunity agent that is used to desensitize Rh-negative mothers after delivery of an Rh-positive infant to prevent erythroblastosis fetalis in future pregnancies.

When administered within 72 hrs of delivery, the immune globulin diminishes antibody formation in the mother.

Side effects:
Slight temp. elevations & mild local reactions @ site of injection.
IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS
Interfere with the development of antibody response to a foreign substance, also needed to prevent organ rejection in transplants.
General complications of immunosuppressives
Increased susceptibility to infection and potentially fatal adverse effects when minor illness are contracted.

CNS toxicity with symptoms like dizziness, headache, confusion, slurred speech, and paresthesias.

Jaundice from liver damage and symptoms of bone marrow suppression such as sore throat, oral mucosal lesions, excessive bruising.

Immunosuppressed patients may contract poliomyelitis from live virus shed by infants after oral administration of live poliovirus vaccine.
Examples of Corticosteroids
prednisone

prednisolone

dexamthasone

* Are used most oftem for imummunosuppression.

Side effects:
Salt & water retention
Moon facies
Fat distribution
Other immunosuppressive agents
azathioprine (Imuran)

lymphocytic immune globulin, antihymocyte globulin (ATG, Atgam)

tacrolimus (Prograf)

cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)

cyclosporine

interferon beta (Betasteron)
azathioprine (Imuran)

Route(s): Oral
Antagonist to RNA and DNA sythesis, thus interfering with cell metabolism.

Tx of renal transplant patients to prevent rejection also for other autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, hemolytic anemias and idiopathic thrombocytopenia.

Side effects:
Liver damage, increased susceptibility to infection
Bone marrow suppression.
lymphocytic immune globulin, antihymocyte globulin (ATG, Atgam)

Route(s): IV
Is used for the prevention or treatment of kidney transplant rejections, aplastic anemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplant.

Side effects:
fever, chills, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, serum sickness, anaphylaxis, and infectious complications due to immunosuppression.
tacrolimus (Prograf)

Route(s): Oral or IV
Is used to prevent rejection of kidney transplant.

Side effects:
Nephrotoxicity
Neurotoxicity
Insomnia
Paresthesias
Psychological disorders
cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)

Route(s): Oral or IV
Interferes with DNA & RNA activities & disrupts cellular function and destroy multiplying lymph cells.

Tx of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis & the nephrotic syndrome & to prevent organ transplant rejection.
cyclosporine

Route(s): Oral
Acts primarily against T lymphocyte & inhibit the factors that stimulate T-lymphocite growth.

Is used to prevent rejection of organ or bone marrow transplants.

Note:
Grapefruit juice raises the serum level of this drug & reduces the serum clearance of cyclosporine.
interferon beta (Betaseron)

Route(s): subQ
Are species-specific proteins that has complex antiviral, antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities.

Tx of multiple sclerosis by inhibiting the production of interferon gamma.