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189 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
job design
an approach to motivation suggesting that people's jobs can be created to enhance people's interests in doing them
job enlargement
the practice of expanding the content of a job to include more variety and a greater number of tasks at the same level
job enrichment
the practice of giving employees a high degree of control over their work, from planning and organization, through implementing the jobs and evaluating the results
job characteristics model
an approach to job enrichment that specifies that five core job dimensions (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and job feedback) produce critical psychological states that lead to beneficial outcomes for individuals and the organization
growth need strength
the personality variable describing the extent to which people have a high need for personal growth and development on the job; the 'job characteristics model' best describes people in high growth need strength
motivating potential score
a mathematical index describing the degree to which a job is designed so as to motivate people, as suggested by the 'job characteristics model;' it os computed on the basis of a questionnaire known as the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS); the higher the MPS, the more the job may stand to benefit from redesign
group dynamics
the social science field focusing on the nature of groups--the factors governing their formation and development, the elements of their structure, and their interrelationships with individuals, other groups, and organizations
a collection of two or more interacting individuals who maintain stable patterns of relationships, share common goals, and perceive themselves as being a group
formal groups
groups that are created by the organization, intentionally designed to direct its members toward some organizational goal
command group
a group determined by the connections between individuals who are a formal part of the organization (i.e., those who legitimately can give orders to others)
task group
a formal organizational group formed around some specific task
standing committees
committees that are permanent, existing over time
ad hoc committee
a temporary committee formed for a special purpose
task forces
a temporary committee formed for a special purpose
informal groups
groups that develop naturally among people, without any direction from the organization within which they operate
interest groups
a group of employees who come together to satisfy a common interest
friendship groups
informal groups that develop bc their members are friends, often seeking each other outside of the organization
punctuated-equilibrium model
the conceptualization of group development claiming that groups generally plan their activities during their first half of time together, and then revise and implement their plans in the second half
group structure
the pattern of interrelationships between the individuals constituting a group; the guidelines of a group behavior that make group funtioning orderly and predictable
typical behavior that characterizes a person in a specific social context
role incumbent
a person holding a particular role
role expectations
the behaviors expected of someone in a particular role
role ambiguity
confusion arising from not knowing what one is expected to do as the holder of a role
role differentiation
the tendency for various specialized roles to emerge as groups develop
task-oriented role
the activities of an individual in a group, who, more than anyone else, helps the group reach its goal
socioemotional role
the activities of an individual in a group who is supportive and nurturant of other group members, and who helps them feel good
relations-oriented role
the activities of an individual in a group who is supportive and nuturant of other group members, and who helps them feel good
self-oriented role
the activities of an individual in a group who focuses on his or her own good, often at the expense of others
generally agreed on informal rules that guide group members' behaviors
prescriptive norms
expectations within groups regarding what is supposed to be done
proscriptive norms
expectations within groups regarding behaviors in which members are not supposed to engage
the relative prestige, social position, or rank given to groups or individuals by others
formal status
the prestige one has by virtue of his or her official position in an organization
status symbols
objects reflecting the position of any individual within an organization's hierarchy of power
informal status
the prestige accorded individuals with certain characteristics that are not formally recognized by the organization
the strength of group members' desires to remain a part of the group
social facilitation
the tendency for the presence of others sometimes to enhance an individual's performance and at other times to impair it
drive theory of social facilitation
the theory according to which the presence of others increases arousal, which increases people's tendecies to perform the dominant response; if that response is well-learned, performance will improve; but, if it is novel, performance will be impaired
evaluation apprehension
the fear of being evaluated or judged by another person
computerized performance monitoring
the process of using computers to monitor job performance
additive tasks
types of group tasks in which the coordinated efforts of several people are added together to form the group's product
social loafing
the tendency for group members to exert less individual effort on an additive task as the size of the group increases
social impact theory
the theory that explains social loafing in terms of the diffused responsibility for doing what is expected of each member of a group; the larger the size of a group, the less each member is influenced by the social forces acting upon the group
individualistic cultures
national groups whose members place a high value on individual accomplishments and personal success
collectivistic cultures
national groups whose members place a high value on shared responsibility and the collective good of all
a group whose members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or set of performance goals for which they hold themselves accountable
high-perfomance teams
teams whose members are deeply committed to one another's personal growth and success
work teams
teams whose members are concerned primarily with using the organization's resources to effectively create its results
improvement teams
teams whose members are oriented primarily toward the mission of increasing the effectiveness of the processes used by the organization
semiautomonous work groups
work groups in which employees and their bosses get to share in the responsibility for decisions with and are jointly accountable for their work outcomes
self-managed teams
teams whose members are permitted to make key decisions about how their work is done
self-directed teams
teams whose members are permitted to make key decisions about how their work is done
cross-functional teams
teams represented by people from different speciality areas within organizations
virtual teams
teams that operate across space, time and organizational boundaries, communicating with each other only through electronic technology
law of telecosm
the idea that as computer networks expand, distances become irrelevant
team building
formal efforts directed toward making teams more effective
decision making
the process of mkaing choices from among several alternatives
analytical model of the decision making process
an eight-step approach to organizational decision making that focuses on both the formulation of problems and the implementation of solutions
the process of understanding a problem and making a decision about it
the process of carrying out a decision
a decision about what process to follow in making a decision
decision support systems (DSS)
computer programs in which information about organizational behavior si presented to decision makers in a manner that helps them structure their responses to decisions
programmed decisions
highly routine decisions made by lower-level personel following preestablished organizational routines and procedures
nonprogrammed decisions
decisions made about a highly novel problem for which there is no prespecified course of action
strategic decisions
nonprogrammed decisions typically made by high level executives regarding the direction their organization sould take to achieve its mission
top-down decision making
the practice of vesting decision-making power in the hand of superious as opposed to lower level employees
empowered decision making
the practice of vesting power for mkaing decisions in the hands of employees themselves
decision style
differences between people with respect to their orientations toward decisions
adaptive agents
sophisticated computer models that capture the roles of complex human behavior
decision style model
the conceptualization according to which people use one of four predominant predominant decision styles: directive, analytical, conceptual, and behavioral
the tendency for member of highly cohesive groups to so strongly conform to group pressures regarding a certain decision that htey fail to think critically, rejecting the potentially correcting influences of outsiders
rational decisions
decisions that maximize the chance of attaining and individual's, group's or organization's goals
rational-economic model
the model of decision making according to which decision makers consider all the possible alternatives to problems before selecting an optimal solution
administrative model
a model of decision making that recognizes the bounded rationality that limits the making of optimally rational-economic decisions
satisficing decisions
decisions made by selecting the first minimally acceptable alternative as it becomes available
bounded rationality
the major assumption of the administrative model that organizational, social, and human limitations head to the mkaing fo satisficing rather than optimal decisions
bonded discretion
the tendency to restrict decision alternatives to those that fall within prevailing ethical standards
imagery theory
a theory of decision making that recognizes that decisions are made in an automatic, intuitive fashion based on actions that best fit a person's individual principles, current goals, and plans for the future
the tendency for people to make different decisions based on how the problem is presented to them
risky choice framing effect
the tendency for people to avoid risks when situations are presented in a way that emphasizes positive gains and to take risks when situations are presented in a way that emphasized potential losses that may be suffered
attribute framing effect
the tendency for people to evaluate a characteristic more positively when it is presented in positive terms than when it is presented in negative terms
goal framing effect
the tendency for people to be more strongly persuaded by information that is framed in negative terms than information that is framed in positive terms
simple decision making rules used to make quick decisions about complex problems
availability heuristics
the tendency for people to base their judgements on information that is readily available to them although it may be potentially inaccurate, thereby adversly affecting decision quality
representative heuristic
the tendency to perceive others in stereotypical ways if they appear to be typical representatives of the category to which they belong
implicit favorite
one's preferred decision alternative, selected even before all options have been considered
confirmation candidate
a decision alternative considered only for purposes of convincing onself of the wisdom of selecting the implicit favorite
hindsight bias
the tendency for people to perceive outcomes as more inevitable after they have occured than they did before they occurred
person sensitivity bias
the tendency for people to give others too little credit when things are going poorly and too much credit when things are going well
escalation of committment phenomenon
the tendency for individuals to continue to support previously unsuccessful courses of action
a technique designed to foster group productivity by encouraging interacting group members to express their ideas in a noncritical fashion
the state in which an individual frantically searches for quick solutions to problems and goes from one idea to another out of a sesnse of desperation that one idea isn't working and that another needs to be considered before time runs out
unconflicted adherence
the tendency for decision makers to stick to the first idea that comes to their minds without more deeply evaluating the consequences
unconflicted change
the tendency for people to quickly change their minds and to adopt the first new idea to come along
defensive avoidance
the tendency for decision makers to fail to solve problems because they go out of their way to avoid working on the problem at hand
Delphi technique
a method of improving group decisions using the opinions of experts, which are solicited by mail and then compiled; the expert consensus of opinions are used to make a decision
nominal group technique (NGT)
a technique for improving group decisions in which small groups of individuals systematically present and discuss their ideas before privately voting on their preferred solution; the most preferred solution is accepted as the group's decision
stepladder technique
a technique for improving the quality of group decisions that minimizes the tendency for group members to be unwilling to present their ideas by adding new members to a group one at a time and requiring each to present his or her ideas independently of the group that already has discussed the problem at hand
electronic meetings
the practice of bringing individuals from different locations together for a meeting via telephone or satellite transmissions, either on television or via shared space on a computer screen
computer-assisted communication
the sharing of information, such as text messages and date relevant to the decision, over computer networks
openness to experience
a personality variable reflecting the degree to which individuals have intellectual curiousity, value learning, have an active imagination, and are intrigued by artistic endeavors
group decision support systems (GDSS)
interactive computer-based systems that combine communication, computer, and decision technologies to improve the effectiveness of group problem-solving meetings
an individual within a group or an organization who wield the most influence over others
the process whereby one individual influences other group members toward the attainment of defined group or organizational goals
great person theory
the view that leaders possess special traits that set them apart from others and that these traits are responsible for their assuming positions of power and authority
leadership motivation
the desire to influence others, especially toward the attainment of shared goals
personalized power motivation
the wish to dominate others, reflected by an excessive concern with status
socialized power motivation
the desire to cooperate with others, to develop networks and coalitions
multiple domains of intelligence
intelligence as measured in several different ways, such as cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, and cultural intelligence
cultural intelligence
a person's sensitivity to the fact that leaders operate differently in different cultures
autocratic leadership style
a style of leadership in which the leader makes all decisions unilaterally
participative leadership style
a style of leadership in which the leader permits subordinates to take part in decision making and also gives them a considerable degree of autonomy in completing routine work activities
autocratic-delegation continuum model
an approach to leadership describing the ways in which leaders allocate influence to subordinates; range includes: autocratic, consulting, making joint decisions, and delegating
two dimensional model of subordinate participation
an approach to leadership that describes the nature of the influences leaders give followers with an autcratic/participative dimension and a directive/permissive dimension
initiating structure (production oriented leadership)
activities by a leader designed to enhance productivity or task performance; leaders who focus primarily on these goals are described as demonstrating a task-oriented style
consideration (person oriented leadership)
actions by a leader that demonstrate concern with the welfare of subordinates and establish positive relations with them; leaders who focus primarily on this task are often described as demonstrating person-oriented style
grid training
a multistep process designed to cultivate two important leadership skills--concern for people and concern for production
leader-member exchange (LMX) model
a theory suggesting that leaders form different relations with various subordinates and that their nature can exert strong effects on subordinates' performance and satisfaction
grassroots leadership
an approach to leadership that turns the traditional management hierarchy upside down by empowering people to make their own decisions
attribution approach (to leadership)
the approach to leadership that focuses on leaders' attributions of followers' perfomance--that is, their perceptions of its underlying causes
rally 'round the flag effect
the tendency for followers to make positive attributions about their leaders whe they appear to be working to keep things together during a crisis situation
charismatic leaders
leaders who exert especially powerful effects on followers by virtue of their commanding confidence and clearly articulated visions
pragmatic leadership
a type of leadership based on methodically developing solutions to problems and working them through in a thorough manner
transformational leadership
leadership in which leaders use their charisma to transform and revitalize their organizations
contingeny theories of leadership effectiveness
any of several theories that recognize that certain styles of leadership are more effective in some situations than others
LPC contingency theory
a theory suggesting that leader effectiveness is determined by both characteristics of leaders and by the level of situational control they are able to exert over subordinates
short for "esteem for least preferred coworker," a personality variable distinguishing individuals with respect to their concern people (high LPC) and their concern for production (low LPC)
leader match
the practice of matching leaders (based on the LPC scores) to the groups whose situations match those in which they are expected to be most effective according to LPC contigency theory
situational leadership theory
a theory suggesting that the most effective style of leadership-delegating, participation, selling, or telling-depends on the extent to which followers require guidance, direction, and emotional support
path-goal theory
a theory of leadership suggesting that subordinates will be motivated by a leader only to the extent they perceive this individual as helping them to attain valued goals
normative decision theory
a theory of leader effectiveness focusing on primarily on strategies for choosing the most effective approach to making decisions
substitutes for leadership
the view that high levels of skill among subordinates or certain features of technology and organizational structure sometimes serave as substitues for leaders, rendering their guidance or influence superfluous
leadership development
the practice of systematically training people to expand their capacity to function effectively in leadership roles
in China, a person's network of personal and business connections
a leadership development tool designed to help people make connections to others to whom they can turn for information and problem solving
executive coaching
a technique of leadership development that invovles custom-tailored, one-on-one learning aimed at improving an individual leader's performance
action learning
a leadership development technique involving a continuous process of learning and reflection that is supported by colleagues and that emphasizes getting things done
social influence
attempts to affect another in a desired fashion, whether or not these are successful
the potential to influence others successfully
position power
power based on one's formal position in an organization
legitimate power
the individual power base derived from one's position in an organizational hierarchy; the accepted authority or one's position
reward power
the individual power base derived from an individual's capacity to administer valued rewards to others
coercive power
the individual power base derived from the capacity to administer punishment to others
information power
the extent to which a supervisor provides a subordinate with the information needed to do the job
personal power
the power that one derives because of his or her individual qualities or characteristics
rational persuasion
using logical arguments and factual evidence to convince others that an idea is acceptable
expert power
the individual power base derived from an individual's recognized superior skills and abilities in a certain area
referent power
the individual power base derived from the degree to which one is liked and admired by others
an attitude of enthusiasm and optimism that is contagious; an aura of leadership
the process in which employees are given increasing amounts of autonomy and discretion in connection with their work
resource-dependency model
the view that power resides within subunits that are able to control the greatest share of valued organizational resources
strategic contingencies model
a view explaining power in terms of a subunit's capacity to control the activities of other subunits; a subunit's power is enhanced when 1) it can reduce the level of uncertainty experienced by other subunits, 2) it occupies a central position in the organization, and 3) its activities are highly indispensable to the organization
organizational politics
actions by individuals that are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interest without regard for the well-being of others or their organization
someone who is made to take the blame for someone else's failure or wrongdoing
organizational structure
the formal configuration between individuals and groups with respect to the allocation of tasks, responsibilities, and authorities within organizations
organizational chart
a diagram representing the connections between the various departments within an organization; a graphic representation of organizational design
hierarchy of authority
a configuration of the reporting relationships wtihin organizations, that is, who reports to whom
division of labor
the process of dividing the many tasks performed within an organization into specialized jobs
span of control
the number of subordinates in an organization who are supervised by an individual manager
line positions
positions in organizations in which people can make decisions related to doing its basic work
staff positions
positions in organizations in which people make recommendations to others but who are not themselves involved in making decisions concerning the organization's day-to-day operations
the extent to which authority and decision making are spread throughout all levels of an organization rather than being reserved exclusively for top management
the process of breaking up organizations into coherent units
functional organization
the type of departmentalization based on the activities or functions performed
product organization
the type of departmentalization based on the products (or product lines) produced
matrix organization
the type of departmentalization in which a product or project form is superimposed on a functional form
organizational design
the process of coordinating the structural elements of an organization in the most appropriate manner
classical organizational theory
the approach that assumes that there is a single best way to design organizations
neoclassical organizational theory
an attempt to imporove on the classical organizational theory that argues that not only economic effectiveness, but also employee satisfaction, should be goals of an industrial organization
horizontal organization
the practice of structuring organizations by processes performed, using autonomous work teams in flattened hierarchies
contingent approach to organizational design
the contemporary approach that recognizes that no one approach to organizational design is best, but that the best design is the one that best fits with the existing environmental conditions
mechanistic organization
an internal organizational structure in which people perform specialized jobs, many rigid rules are imposed, and authority is vested in a few top-ranking officials
organic organization
an internal organizational structure in which jobs tend to be very general, there are few rules, and decisions can be made by lower-level employees
operating core
employees who perform basic work related to an organization's product or service
strategic apex
top-level exectives responsible for running an entire organization
middle line
managers who transfer information between higher and lower levels of organizational hierarchy
organizational specialists responsible for standardizing various aspects of an organization's activities
support staff
individuals who provide indirect support services to an organization
simple structure
an organization characterized as being small and informal, with a single, powerful individual, often the founding entrepeneur, who is in charge of everything
machine bureaucracy
an organizational form in which work is highly specialized, decision making is concentrated at the top, and the work environment is not prone to change
professional bureaucracy
organizations in which there are lots of rules to follow, but employees are highly skilled and free to make decisions on their own
divisional structure
the form used by many large organizations, in which separate autonomous units are created to deal with entire product line, freeing top management to focus on large-scale strategic decisions
a highly informal organic organization in which specialists work in teams, coordinating with each other on various projects
boudaryless organization
an organization in which chaines of command are eliminated, spans of control are unlimited, and rigid departments give way to empowered teams
modular organization
an organization that surrounds itself by a network of other organizations to which it regularly outsources noncore functions
virtual organization
a highly flexible, temporary organization formed by a group of companies that join forces to exploit a specific opportunity
affiliate networks
satellite organizations affiliated with core companies that have helped them develop
autonomous change
a change in one part of an organization that is made independently of the need for change in another part
systemic change
a change in one part of an organization that is related to change in other parts of it