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30 Cards in this Set

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5 live attenuated vaccines
-MMR
-varicella
-BCG (bacille calmette-guerin)
- polio (vacinia or OPV)
- small pox
1 vaccine from inactivated toxin
DPT
2 Vaccines from purified protein
-pertussis
-Hep B
Vaccine from polysaccharides or protein
-meningococcal
-pneumococcal
-Haemophilus
4 vaccines from inactivated agents
inactivated polio
influenza
Hep A
Cholera
ICHI
3 antimicrobial peptides in extracellular immune response
defensins
cathelicidins
protegrins (put hole in membrane)
Effector mechanism essential for Neisseria
Complement
How do lysozymes, cathespins, elastase function as effector mechanisms in extracellular response?
degredation of proteins or lipids essential for pathogen integrity
Effector enzymes in neutrophils
Defensins & myeloperoxidase
Effector enzymes in all phagocytes
NADPH & phagocyte oxidase
How do phagocytes recognize pathogens
-C3bi
-CRP
-IgG 1 or 3
-MBL
How are macrophages activated
Th1's express CD40L & TCR
MP binds via CD40 & MHC I
IFN gamma receptor is activated
Product of activated macrophages
increased expression of B7 & MCH II
secrete TNF, IL-1, IL-2 IL-12
release iNOS to kill microbe
Bugs that subvert humoral immunity via antigenic variation
Neisseria, E coli, Salmonella
3 ways bugs subvert humoral immunity
antigenic variation
evasion of phagocytosis (pneumococci)
inhibit complement activation
subversion of immunity by Leishmania Major
Th1 response gives full recovery, Th2 gives disseminated infection
subversion of immunity by mycobacterium leprae
Th1 response gives tuberculoid leprosy, Th2 gives lepromatous (with High bacteria count)
prokaryote characteristics
-cytoplasmic membrane
-nucleoid
-ribosomes: 70s (eukaryote has 80s)
-cell wall: peptidoglycan
NO: membrane bound organelles (mitochondria)
Penicillin G
G+ strep & enterococcus
NO STAPH
N Meningitidis
***(Pen V for dentistry)***
Amoxocillin
Extended spectrum PCN (skin & soft tissue, lower UTI & URI)
URI, increased G- coverage
Needs Clavulonic for ME & sinus infection
Ampicillin
extended spectrum PCN
Listeria Monocytogenes
E Coli (UTI)& H Influenza (URI) & meningitis (HIB, S Pneumo, N Meningiditis)
Ticarcillin & Pipercillin
extended spectrum PCN
P. Aeruginosa (w/aminoglycocide)
SE: bleeding disorder
Methcillin
Reserved for PCNase forming staph
Clavulonic Acid
can be added to PCN to inhibit PCNase
Probenicid
decreases renal elimination of PCN- increases half life
Cephalexin
1st generation Cephalosporin
Proteus Mirabilus, E Coli, Klebsiella
PEcK
Cefuroxime
2nd generation Cephalosporin
Haemophilis, Enterobacter, Neisseria
HEN
Cefataxime
3rd generation cephalosporin
crosses BBB
mostly G- coverage
Cefepine
4th generation cephalosporin
broad spectrum G+ & G-
Imipenem
broadest spectrum beta lactam antibiotic
nosocomial infections
P Aerugenosa