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42 Cards in this Set

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4 methods of genetic transfer in bacteria
Transformation
Transduction
Conjugation
Insertion sequences
TICT
bacterial uptake & integration of DNA from environment
transformation
strep, haemophilus, N gonorrhea, H Pylori
phage-mediated transfer of bacterial DNA
Transduction
direct transfer of bacterial DNA between 2 organisms
conjugation
usually plasmid-mediated
DNA peices that "jump" in and out of DNA
Insertion sequences
Transposon = 2 insertion sequences flanking another gene (or set of genes)
2 insertion sequences flanking a gene (or set of genes)
transposon
very important in drug resistance
period of growth when bacteria is adapting to new environment
lag phase
state of steady bacterial growth
exponential or log phase
period of growth when bacteria has used up nutrients or toxins accumulated
stationary or plateau phase
Obligate anaerobes do not have ...
SOD, peroxidase, catalase (to process reactive species)
3 species obligate anaerobes
Actinomyces (G-)
Bacteroides (G-)- fragilis, prevotella
Clostridium (G+)

Peptostreptococcus
ABC's
1 species obligate aerobe
mycobacterium tuberculosis
molecule in all bacterial cell walls
Peptidoglycan (not in MTB-mycolic acids instead- waxy)
made of Murein (not in Chlamydia) x-linked by peptide bonds
NO cell wall in mycoplasma
composition of G+ cell wall
cell membrane
thick PG layer w/Lipoteichoic acid (teichoic acid is virulence factor)
no outer membrane
+/- capsule
composition of G- cell wall
cell membrane
thin layer PG
periplasmic space (w/PG & lipoprotein to connect outer membrane)
outer membrane w/LPS containing O antigen & Lipid A (toxic)
bacteria that make spores
only G+ rods:
Clostridium
Bacillus (anthracis & cereus- reheated rice)
major constitiuents of spores
dried muramic acid
Ca++
G- cocci
Neisseria
Meningiditis (glucose & maltose--MGM)
Gonorrhea (glucose only)
need complement to kill
found in Alcoholics, Aspiration Pneumonia & Abscess of lung
Klebsiella
non-motile enterobacteriaceae
klebsiella & shigella
K eep S wimming (Shitting)
enterobactericeae
G- bacilli
in GI
Entero
Escherichia
Klebsiella
Proteus
Salmonella
Serratia
Shigella
Yersinia (not in GI- plague)
KEEPSSSH & Y
enterobacteria with polysaccharide capsule
Klebsiella & salmonella
(non-motile are Kleb & shig)
K eep S wimming (Salmon- Shig doesn't swim)
G- bacilli causing diarrhea
V. Cholera (rice water)
V. Vulnificus (diarrhea & wound infections in fishermen & ocean swimmers)
Campy & Helicobacter
small curved G- rods
gastroenteritis
H Pylori
G- spiral shaped, motile rod
Pseudomonas
G- rods in soil & water

Areuginosa: pili, slime layer, endotoxin, exotoxins- nosocomial infection, immunocompromised
Haemophilus
G- small pleomorphic coccobacilli

HIB - meningitis & epiglottitis
Bordetella
G- coccibacilli
whooping cough
ADP ribosylation of Gi, increases cAMP
Legionella
G- facultative intracellular parasite
Staphylococcus virulence factors
G+ cocci
enzymes (coagulase, DNAse, Staphylokinase, Hyaluronidase, Lipase)
Exotoxins (hemolysins, leukocidin, epidermolytic toxin, TSST-1, Enterotoxin)
Streptococcus
G+ Cocci
Group A Strep
Strep Pyogenes
M protein
Lipoteichoic acid
hyaluronic acid capsule- (inhib phag)

hyaluronidase (spread through for cellulitis)
streptolysin O
Listeria
G+ bacilli
neonates, pregnant women (bacteremia), immunosuppression, alcoholics
adult & neonatal meningitis
Corynebacterium
G+ bacilli
Diphtheria
tonsillar pseudomembrane
Bacillus
G+ Bacilli
Anthrax
Cereus (reheated rice)
makes spores
Clostridia
G+ rods
obligate anaerobes
spores

Perfringins- gas gangrene
Difficile- antibiotic associated diarrhea
Tetani
Butulinum
G+ bacteria families
Staph
Strep
Listeria (meningitis)
Cornybacterium (diphtheria)
Bacillus (anthrax)
Clostridia
sslcbc
Rickettsiaceae
G- coccobacilli
obligate intracellular parasite
Rocky Mountain Tick Fever
Chlamydia
G- obligate intracellular parasite
no murein in cell wall
Treponema Pallidum
G- spirochete
syphilis
Borrelia
G-
Lyme disease
(bordetella is whooping cough)
Mycoplasma
resemble G- but lack cell wall
M Pneumoniae- most common cause of pneumonia in young adults (atypical pneumo)