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70 Cards in this Set

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What is the test for pure water?
Check its melting or boiling point which should be exactly either 0C or 100C respectively.
What abbreviation (aq) means?
Aqueous - Solution dissolved in water.
In endothermic process is the energy gained or lost?
Gained (Heat enters)
In exothermic process is the energy gained or lost?
Lost (Heat exits)
In melting process is the energy gained or lost?
Gained
In the condensing process is the heat energy gained or lost?
The heat energy is lost.
In the sublimation process is the heat energy gained or lost?
Gained or lost, it depends on process.
What are the three states of matter?
Solid, Liquid and Gas.
What is meant by sublimation?
Where solid changes straight to a gas without changing to liquid or vice versa. This process is called sublimation.
Give examples of materials which sublime.
Iodine, solid carbon dioxide (dry ice), graphite, ammonium chloride (NH4CI)
What does diffusion mean?
Diffusion - diffusion is spreading of one substance through another from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration due to the continuous random motion of particles
What is the evidence for the existence of particles in liquids?
If a crystal of purple manganate(VII) is placed in a beaker of water, the purple colour spreads throughout the whole beaker due to the continuous random motion of particles. After 24 hours the purple colour would be uniformly spread through out the whole beaker.
What does uniformly mean?
Uniformly - Same
What is the evidence for the existence of particles in a gases?
Red/Brown volatile bromine liquid is placed in the bottom gas jar. This vapourises to fill the whole of the gas jar with orange/brown vapour. A gas jar of air is placed on top. When the gas lid is remove from between the jars the gases diffuse due to the constant rapid ramndom motion of the particles. After about 20 mins the colour would be uniformly orange/brown in both gas jars
Do gases diffuse faster than liquids?
Yes, gases diffuse faster than liquids
Why do gases diffuse faster than liquid?
Gases diffuse faster than liquids because the particles in a gas are moving in contiuous rapid random motion whereas particles in a liquid move much more slowly
What is produced when ammonia vapour and hydrogen chloride vapour meet?
A fuming white smoke is produced. This is ammonium chloride solid (NH4CI)
Why is the concentration of helium higher inside the tube with porous walls?
Helium has a lower relative atomic mass/lower density than any other gas in air and so diffuses into the porous tube at a faster rate. Therefore ther are more helium particles per unit volume (concentration) than any other gas
What does porous mean?
Porous - a solid material full of very small holes, through which gases and liquids can pass
What is a melting point?
Melting point is the tempreature at which a [pure solid changes to a liquid without a change in tempreature
What is a boiling point?
Boiling point is the temprature at which a pure liquid changes to vapour without a change in tempreature
What is a solidifying point?
Solidifying point is the tempreature at which a pure liquid changes to a solid without a change in tempreature
What is a condensation point?
Condensation point is the tempreature at which vapour changes to a liquid without a change in tempreature
When do pure substances mnelt and boil?
Pure substances melt and boil at a tempreature that is fixed for a particular substance
What do melting and boiling points tell us?
Melting and boiling points tell us
1.weather the substance is pure (fixed melting and boiling point)
2.Possibly the identity of a substance (a substance boiling at 78C is possibly ethanol)
What is an atom?
An atom is the smallest part of an element that can exist as a stable entity
What is an element?
An elemnt is a substance, which cannot be further divided into simpler substances by chemical methods
What is a compound?
A compound is a pure substance, which contains two or more different elements, chemically bonded in fixed proportions and cannot be seperated by physical means
What is a molecule?
A molecule is the smallest part of an element or a compound, which can exist alone under ordinary conditions
What is a mixture?
A mixture is a system of two or more substances that can be seperated by physical means
What is the one difference between a compound and a mixture?
The difference is that the bonded elements in a compound can only be seperated by chemical means whereas the components of a mixture can be separated by physical means
What are the three types of particles that an atom is made from?
1.Protons (found in nucleus)
2.Neutrons (found in the nucleus)
3.Electrons (found in shells, orbitals or energy levels)
What is the relative charge of a proton?
The relative charge of a proton is 1+
What is the relative charge of a neutron?
The relative charge of a neutron is 0
What is the relative charge of a electron?
The relative charge of a elewctron is 1-
Do electrons fill the shells around the nucleus?
Yes
In an atom are the number of electrons and protons equal?
Yes
How many electrons does the first shell of an atom hold?
2 Electrons
How many electrons does the second and the third shell of an atom hold?
8 Electrons
Which shell in an atom holds 2 electrons?
The first shell
Which shell in an atom holds up to 8 electrons?
The second and the third shell
How many numbers are associated with the elements in the Periodic Table?
2 Numbers
What is the top number?
Atomic Mass = Nucleon Number = Protons + Neutrons
(bigger/top number)
What is the bottom number?
Atomic Number = Number of Protons = Number of Electrons
(smaller/bottom number)
How do you work out the number of neutrons?
Number of Neutrons = atomic mass - atomic number
Why are all the atoms neutral (no overall charge)?
Atoms contain the smae number of protons and electrons. Each positivecharge cancels out each negative charge therfore there is no net charge
What is an Isotopes?
Isotopes are atoms of the same element,with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Do Isotopes of an element have the same chemical reactions if yes, then why?
Yes they do, because isotopes have the same number of valence electrons and so lose or gain the same number of electrons to have a full outer shell, therefore the same chemical reactions
Can Isotopes be radioactive and non - radioactive?
Yes
What is radioactivity?
Radioactivity is the property of spontaneous nuclear changes in which energy released as radiation and a new nucleus is formed with a different number of protons and, in some cases,a different number of neutrons
What is the medical use of cobalt - 60?
Cobalt - 60 is used in treating inaccessible cancerous cells
Wnhat is the medical use of strontium - 90?
Strontium - 90 is used in treating skin cancer
What is used in treating skin cancer?
Strontium - 90
What is used in treating inaccessible cancerous cells?
Cobalt - 60
What is the medical use of iodine - 131?
Iodine - 131 is used to monitor the function of the tyroid gland
What is used to monitor the function of the tyroid gland?
Iodine - 131
What is the medical use of Gamma Rays?
Gamma Rays can be used to sterilise surgical equipment
What can be used to sterilise surgical equipment?
Gamma Rays
What is the industrial use of strontium - 90?
Strontium - 90 is used to monitor the thickness of paper or metal on a production line to make sure it is not too thick or too thin
What is used to monitor the thickness of paper or metal on a production line to make sure it is not too thick or too thin?
Strontium - 90
What is the industrial use of the uranium - 235?
Uranium - 235 is used to generate electricity in a nuclear power station
What is used to generate electricity in a nuclear power station?
Uranium - 235
What are Ions?
Ions are formed when metal atoms have donated(lost) their valence electrons forming positive ions, or non - metal atoms accept (gain) electrons forming negative ions
Why do metal atoms lose their valence electrons forming positive ions (also called cations)?
They do this to obtain the noble gas electronic configuration/full outer shell
What is Valency?
Valency - Valency is the combining power of an atom or group of atoms which is equal to the magnitude/size of the charge on the ion
What is the valency of metals?
The valency for metals is the same number as the group number in the Periodic table
What is the valency of non - metals?
The valency for non - metals is worked out from the group number. Subtract the group number away from eight
What are metal ions?
Metal ions have the same electronic configuration as a noble gas, which is 1 period less than the metal was in
What is the arrangement of a solid?
The arrangement in a solid is close together regular
What is the arrangement in a liquid?
The arrangement in a liquid is close together in an irregular