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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Application Software
Programs that enable users to perform specific tasks such as writing a letter or playing a game.
Boot
To start up a computer.
Communications
The transmission of data from one device to another.
Computer
A programmable, electronic device that accepts data input, performs processing operations on that data, and outputs and stores the results.
Computer literacy
The knowledge and understanding of basic computer fundamentals.
Computer Network
A collection of computers and other hardware devices that are connected together to share hardware, software, and data, as well as to communicate electronically with one another.
Computer User
A person who uses a computer.
Data
Raw, unorganized facts.
Desktop
The background work area displayed on the screen in Microsoft Windows.
Dialog Box
A window that requires the user to supply additional information.
Domain name
A text-based Internet address used to uniquely identify a computer on the internet.
Information
Data processed into a meaningful form.
Internet Address
What identifies a computer, person or web page on the Internet, such as an IP address, domain name, or e-mail address.
Mainframe computer
A computer used in large organizations that needs to manage large amounts of centralized data and run multiple programs simultaneously.
Processing
Performing operations on data that has been input into a computer to convert that input to output.
Sizing button
Small buttons located at the top-right corner of a window used to resize the window.
Thin client
A PC designed to access a network for processing and data storage, instead of performing those tasks locally; also called a network computer.
URL
Uniform resource locator
Web server
A computer that is continually connected to the internet and hosts Web pages that are accessible through the Internet
Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)
The part of the CPU that performs logical operations and integer arithmetic.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
A fixed-length, binary coding system widely used to represent text-based data for comptuer processing.
Benchmark test
A test that measures the performance of a computer system to evaluate certain hardware or software components.
Bus
An electronic path on the motherboard or within the CPU or other computer component along which data is transferred.
Bus interface unit
The part of the CPU where instructions and data flow in and out of the CPU.
Byte
A group of 8 bits.
Cache memory
Fast memory chips located on or near the CPU to help speed processing.
CPU
Chip located inside the system unit of a computer that performs the processing.
Control unit
The part of the CPU that coordinates its operations.
Decode unit
The part of the CPU that translates instructions into a form that can be processed by the ALU.
EBCDIC (Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code)
A fixed-length, binary coding system widely used to represent text-based data on IBM mainframe computers
Exabyte (EB)
~1,000 petabytes.
Expansion bus
A bus that connects the CPU to peripheral devices.
Expansion card
A circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot on a PC's motherboard to add additional functionality or to attach a peripheral device.
Expansion slot
A location on the motherbaord into which expansion cards are inserted.
Firewire
A bus standard often used to connect digital video cameras to a PC.
Flash memory
A type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed; commonly implemented in the form of sticks or cards.
Floating point unit (FPU)
The part of the CPU that performs decimal arithmetic.
Machine cycle
The series of operations involved in the execution of a single machine level instruction.
Machine language
A binary-based language for representing computer programs that the computer can execute directly.
Multiprocessing
Capability of an OS to use multiple processors in a single computer, usually to process multiple jobs at one time faster than could be performed with a single processor.
Parallel processing
A processing technique that uses multiple processors simultaneously in a single computer, usually to process a single job as fast as possible
PCI Express (PCIe)
One of the buses most commonly used to connect peripheral devices.
Petabyte (PB)
~1,000 TB
Pipelining
A CPU feature designed to begin processing a new instruction as soon as the previous instruction completes the first stage of the machine cycle.
Prefetch unit
The part of the CPU that attempts to retrieve data and instructions before they are needed for processing, in order to avoid delays.
Quantum computing
A technology that applies the principle of quantum physics to computers to direct atoms or nuclei to work together as quantum bits (qubits), which function simultaneously as the computer's processor and memory.
RAM
Temporary (volatile) location for data.
ROM
Nonerasable chips located on the motherboard into which data or programs have been permanently stored.
Register
High-speed memory built into the CPU that temporarily stores data during processing.
Unicode
A coding system for text-based data using any written language.
Cluster
The part of a track on a disk that crosses a fixed number of contiguous sectors; it is the smallest addressable area of a disk.
Cylinder
The collection of tracks located in the same location on a set of hard disk surfaces.
Hard disk drive
A storage system consisting of one or more metal magnetic disks permanently sealed with an access mechanism inside its drive.
Holographic storage
Storage technology that uses multiple blue laser beams to store data in three dimensions.
Network attached storage (NAS)
A high-performance storage server individually connected to a network to provide storage for computers on that network.
Nonvolatile
Storage medium that retains its contents when the power is shut off.
Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks (RAID)
A storage method that uses several small hard disks in parallel to do the job of a larger disk.
Sector
Pie-shaped area of a disk surface
Storage area network (SAN)
A network of hard drives or other storage devices that provide storage for another network of computers.
Track
Concentric path on a disk where data is recorded.
Volatile
Medium whose content is erased when the power is shut off.
Laser printer
Uses toner powder and technology similar to that of a photocopier to produce images on paper.
RFID tag
A device containing tiny chips and radio antennas that is attached to objects that will be identified using RFID technology.
Buffer
An area in RAM or on the hard drive designated to hold input and output on their way in or out of the system.
Device driver
A program that enables an operating system to communicate with a specific hardware device.
Embedded Linux
The version of Linux designed for handheld PCs and mobile devices.
Linux
A version of UNIX that is available without charge over the Internet and is increasingly being used with PCs, servers, mainframes, and supercomputers.
Mac OS X
The most recent version of the operating system used on Apple computers.
Netware
A widely used operating system for PC-based networks
Symbian OS
A leading operating system for smart phones.
System Software
Programs, such as the operating system that control operation of a computer and its devices, as well as enable application software to run on the PC.
UNIX
Operating system developed in the 1970s for midrange servers and mainframes; many variations of this operating system are in use today.
Virtual memory
A memory-management tecnique that uses hard drive space as additional RAM
Windows embedded.
A family of operating systems, based on windows and designed for nonpersonal computer devices, such as cash registers and consumer electronic devices.
Database
A collection of related data that is stored in a manner enabling information to be retrieved as needed.
Insertion point
An onscreen character that indicates the current location in a document, which is where the next change will be made to the document.
Open source software
Software programs whose source code is made available to the general public.
Record
A collection of related field in a database, also called a row.
Shareware
copyrighted software that is distributed on the honor system; consumers should either pay for it or uninstall it after the trial period.
Word wrap
The feature in a word processing program that automagically returns the insertion point to the next line when the end of the screen line is reached.
Bandwidth
The amount of data that can be transmitted over a communications medium at one time.
Bluetooth
A comm. standard for very short-range wireless connections; the devices are automatically connected once they get within the allowable range.
Bus network
A network consisting of a central cable to which all network devices are attached.
Coaxial cable
A comm. medium consisting of a center wire inside a grounded, cylindrical shield, capable of sending data at high speeds
Ethernet
Widely used comm. protocol for a LAN
Extranet
An intranet that is at least partially accessible to authorized outsiders.
Fiber-optic cable
A comm. medium that utilizes hundreds of hair-thin, transparent fibers over which lasers transmit data as light.
Intranet
A private network that is set up similar to the Internet and is accessed via a Web browser
Mesh network
A network in which there are multiple connections between the devices on the network so that messages can take any of several possible paths.
Microwave station
An earth-based device that sends and receives high-frequency, high-speed radio signals.
Mesh network
A network in which there are multiple connections between the devices on the network so that messages can take any of several possible paths.
Parallel transmission
Data transmission in which bytes of dta are transmitted at one time, with the bits in each byte taking a separate path.
Router
A device on a network that sends data via the most efficient route to travel to a specific location.
Serial transmission
Data transmission in which the bits in a byte travel down the same path one after the other.
Switch
A device on a network to which data is sent so it can be forwarded to the appropriate network node.
TCP/IP
A communications protocol that uses packet switching to facilitate the transmission of messages; the protocol used with the Internet.
Twisted-pair cable
A comm. medium consisting of wire strands twisted in sets of two and bound into a cable.
Virtual private network (VPN)
A group of secure paths over the Internet that provide authorized users a secure means of accessing a private network via the Internet.
Wi-MAX
An emerging wireless networking standard that is faster and has a greater range than Wi-Fi
Application service provider (ASP)
A company that manages and distributes software-based services over the Internet
Directory Search
A type of Internet search in which categories are selected to locate information on the internet.
ISDN Internet access
Dial-up Internet access that is faster than conventional dial-up, but still uses standard telephone lines.
Portal
A web site designed to be designated as a browser home page, typically can be customized to display personzlied content.
Web bug
A very small (usually invisible) image on a Web page that transmits data about the web page visitor to a web server.