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53 Cards in this Set

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Abraham Lincoln- 16th president of the United States
Republican- never left the union or went to the south

-10% (1860) of voters to agree oath of future to US-> state of reconstruction
-plan not acceptable to congress

-Abolish Slavery
-Emancipation Proclamation of 1863
13th amendment
-redefined republican values, promoted nationalism, enlarging the powers
of the federal government.
- Assassinated in 1865
Andrew Johnson- 17th President of United States
-Not as well educated, orphaned as child
-illiterate until an adult
-in politics through TN
-Issues patrons more flexible.
-Stated that reconstruction was gone – congress did not agree

-vetoed legislation by Congress

-didn’t feel he needed congress to bring south in unity with north

-1st president to almost be impeached by House of Representatives but
requited by Senate

- Disputes with Radical Republicans
Andrew Carnegie
-Rags to riches story : started out poor and investments in railroads 1860

-Scottish-American businessman, a major and widely respected phiantrophist

-founder of Carneige Steel Company --> US steel

-known for bulding the most powerful and influential corporations in the US history and giving away later in life to cherities.

-built a fortune as abond salesman raising money in Europe for American enterprises.

-By 1890s-largest and most profitable industrial enterprise int he world.

-pioneer of VERTICAL GROWTH (get ride of the middle man, mixed immigrant groups
John D. Rockefeller
American industrialist and philanthropist. who played a pivotal role in the establishment of the oil industry

-thought purpose in life to make as much money as possible- use for improvement of mankind

-1870-founded Stardard Oil- retired in 1890s

-world's richest man and 1st billionare

attacked by muckraking journalists- monopoly practices

-HORIZONTAL GROWTH --> drove competitiors out of business
J.P. Morgan
-new investment and management techniques--> Finance Capitalism


-American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation

1891 formed General Electric.

-Merged with Carneige Steel Company and other steel and iron businesses to form the US Steel Corportation

-peak early 1900s
died in 1913

FINANCE CAMPITALISM
Horatio Alger
wrote 'rags to riches' stories- illustrating how downand out boys might be able to acheive the American Dream- weatlh, success, determination and concern for others.

-efforts rewarded wtiha place in society not domination of it.

-significant figure in the history of American culture and social ideals.

Ragged Dick- 1968
Frederick Jackson Tuerner's Frontier Thesis
-the wellsprings of American exceptionalism and vitality have always been the American frontier, the region between urbanized, civilized society and the untamed wilderness.


-"breaking the bonds of custom, offering new experiences, [and] calling out new institutions and activities."

-delivered at World Columbian Exposition in Chicago- white city
Ida B. wells
African American civil rights advocate and women's rights activist. A fearless anti-lynching advocate,
Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)
upholding segregation and the constitutionality of the "separate but equal" doctrine.
Reconstruction
- process in U.S. history that attempted to resolve the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and slavery were destroyed.

-It is also the common name for the era between 1865 and 1877 in the United States that addressed the return of the Southern states that had seceded

-Reconstruction had failed to equally integrate the Freedmen into the legal, political, economic and social system.
The General Electric Company
is a multinational American technology and services conglomerate incorporated in the State of New York.[2]According to the Forbes Global 2000 it is the world's second-largest company.
Thomas Edison
was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life worldwide into the 21st century.

1879 invented light bulb
The Midway vs. White City
- 1 out of 4 Americans attended, nearly every American was affected

-influenced writing, (wizard of oz), America the beautiful

-elite culture dominant over American culture

-women, blacks, indians not represented at fair
Pullman strike of 1894
occurred when 50,000 Pullman Palace Car Company workers reacted to a 28% wage cut by going on a wildcat strike in Illinois on May 11, 1894, bringing traffic west of Chicago to a halt

-6 months

-pullman burn city while in strike- deterorating

-chicago back to black city
Populism
aims to defend the interests of the common people against an entrenched, self-serving or corrupt elite

-Leaders of populist movements have variously promised to stand up to corporate power, remove "corrupt" elites, fight for the "poor people of the country", and "put people first."
Progressive Party of 1912
BULL MOOSE PARTY- 3rd party

political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election 1912.

It was formed by Theodore Roosevelt when he lost the Republican nomination to Taft and pulled his delegates out of the convention
-ran out of money- more state level
Farmer's Alliance Movement
organized agrarian economic movement among U.S. farmers that flourished in the 1880s

-Alliance was designed to promote higher commodity prices through collective action by groups of individual farmers.

-The movement was strongest in the South and Great Plains, and was widely popular before it was destroyed by the power of commodity brokers

Despite its failure, it is regarded as the precursor to the United States Populist Party, which grew out of the ashes of the Alliance in 1889.


*PROMOTE BANKING, ASSISTANCE FOR FARMERS, POLITICAL REFORM, TARIFFS DROPPED
Populist Party
Demands:
-National Ownership of Railroads- Governemtn to own railroads

-Unlimited Coinage of Silver

-Increase the Money Supply- more $ available- printed by govn't

-A subtresaruy Plan- with over production, store in govn't buliding, wait until market was improved

-political reform- referendum
Coinage of 1873
The Fourth Coinage Act was enacted by the United States Congress in 1873 and embraced the gold standard and de-monetized silver.

-Western miners and farmers called this act the 'crime of 73'

As countries go off the silver standard (or bimetallic standard) there becomes an increased supply of silver, this coupled with the fact that more silver is being found, the world silver-to-gold supply-demand ratio was rising -DEVALUED MONEY
Sherman Silver Purchase of 1890
The Sherman Silver Purchase Act was enacted in 1890 as a United States federal law. While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month
William Jennings Bryan
American lawyer, statesman, and politician. He was a three-time Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States.

One of the most popular speakers in American history, he was noted for his deep, commanding voice.

-Prodominate leaders of progressive movement

-He was defeated by William McKinley in the intensely fought 1896 election and 1900 election, but retained control of the Democratic Part

-promoted free silver in 1896

-Bryan was highly influential on both major political parties in the twentieth century. The Democrats adopted his progressive economic ideology, while Republicans adopted his social conservatism
Theodore Roosevelt -26th President of the United States
leader of the Republican Party and of the Progressive Movement. He served in many roles including governor of New York, historian, naturalist, explorer, author, and soldier. Roosevelt is most famous for his personality: his energy, his vast range of interests and achievements, his model of masculinity, and his "cowboy” persona.

-became president after Mckinley's assassination
Rough Riders
"The Rough Riders" was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War
-1st us volunteer cavalry


Roosevelt had resigned as Assistant Secretary of the Navy to fight in the war, and his forceful personality and notoriety among the largely yellow press of the period were probably the main driving factors resulting in the fame of this regiment, as well as its being one of the very few volunteer units to actually see action during the war.
Battle of San Juan Hill- Kettle Hill
was the bloodiest and most famous battle of the Spanish-American War.

750 Spanish soldiers were ordered to hold the heights against an American offensive

Theodore and Rough Riders lead to bold charge
Aftermath of Span-Amer War
The battle of San Juan Hill launched Theodore Roosevelt into national fame along with his regiment of "Rough Riders". Roosevelt returned to the United States a national hero and became Vice President three years later.
Spanish-American War
-Concern in Cuba- Dictorship- government corruption

-conflict between the Kingdom of Spain and the United States of America that took place from April to August 1898. The war ended in victory for the United States and the end of the Spanish Empire in the Caribbean and Pacific.

-treaty of paris ended the conflic- gave Us control over the former Spanish Colonies of Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam- process of independence of Cuba
The Philippine-American War
1899 through 1913
The U.S. government made plans to make the Philippines an American colony. However, the Filipinos, fighting for independence from Spain since 1896 had already declared independence on June 12, 1898, and had considered the Americans allies.
-succesful in defeating Philippine Army in 3 yrs but sporadic guerrilla fighting continued til 1913
Interests in Expansion
Religious
Imperialistic
Business- Based
Consequences of the Wars
-Increase in National Pride
>splendid little war
>Cockiness
-America Now an Imperial Power
-Underscoring of Racist Attitude
-Easin of Tenision btw Northa nd SOuth
-Confirmation
Yellow Journalism
William Randolph Heart- New York Journal & Joseph Pulitzer- New York World
-battle between
Both papers were accused by critics of sensationalizing the news in order to drive up circulation, although the newspapers did serious reporting as well.

-promoted war

pejorative reference to journalism that features scandal-mongering, sensationalism, jingoism or other unethical or unprofessional practices by news media organizations or individual journalists
muckraking
journalistic abuses of humans, society

-believed corruption was everywhere

-necessary to improve conditions- could be improved
Ida M. Tarbell(1857–1944)
Muckraker- accused leader of the Standard Oil Company of using unfair tactis. 'History of the Standard Oil Company'- attack on Rockafeller, interviews

-public attention to the monopolic business practices
David Graham Phillips (1867–1911)
exposed corruption in campaign contributors and Senate
Upton Sinclair (1878–1968)
which dealt with conditions in the U.S. meat packing industry and caused a public uproar that partly contributed to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act in 1906.


considered one of the best investigative journalists of his era. Often advocating socialist views, he achieved considerable popularity in the first half of the Twentieth Century.
Lincoln Steffens
articles in McClure's, the American, and Everybody's magazines on city bosses


He specialized in investigating government and political corruption, and two collections of his articles were published as The Shame of the Cities (1904) and The Struggle for Self-Government (1906), he also wrote The Traitor State, which criticized New Jersey for patronizing incorporation.

-short lived enthusiasm of communism
Jane Addams- Hull House
won the Nobel Peace Prize and was a founder of the U.S. Settlement House Movement

-women's movement

-inspired by immigrant house


co-founded Hull House in Chicago, Illinois, one of the first settlement houses in the United States. At its height, Hull House was visited each week by around two thousand people
Woodrow Wilson-28th President of the United States
leading intellectual of the Progressive Era,
Plunkitt of Hammany Hall
Book about the boss system
-political bosses providing social services insider trading (buying land b3 gov. does to get a better profit)
Thomas Johnson of Cleveland
- made $ off of street trolleys
-national reputation
governed cleveland well, not prosecute prostitutes
-gas and electricity under city control
-regulate business practices
-lower fares for street cars
Hazen Pingree of Detroit
-fought privately owned monopolies
-conflict with Johnson with lowering streetcar fares.
-great deal of state control over cities
Woodrow Wilson-28th President of the United States
-academic, professor at Princeton
* State was a mess
Democrat

-wanted neutrality in WWI
Sherman Antitrust Act
Act of July 2, 1890

first United States federal government action to limit monopolies, and is the oldest of all U.S. antitrust laws

-weak law not very well regulated
The Northern Securities case
more effective, he believed, to have boards like the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate corporations. In 1903 his administration created a bureau of corporations, which he hoped would be able to regulate big business. Roosevelt also believed the federal government should have the power to charter corporations, which would give these regulatory boards more control over illegal practices.

-supreme court voteed NS company should be demolished
Interstate Commerce Commision ICC
regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. The agency was abolished in 1995, and the agency's remaining functions were transferred to the Surface Transportation Board.

-original purpose was to regulate railroads (and later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers
Hepburn Act
Hepburn Act of 1908 gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates and led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers. In addition, the ICC could view the railroads' financial records, a task simplified by standardized booking systems

extended to cover bridges, terminals, ferries, sleeping cars, express companies and oil pipelines.


-TR major goals- railroad regulation
William Howard Taft-27th President of the United States
-Republican

-His presidency was characterized by trust-busting, strengthening the Interstate Commerce Commission, expanding the civil service, establishing a better postal system, and promoting world peace.

Roosevelt broke with Taft in 1911, charging Taft was too reactionary.-conservative, big political trouble

-served on Supreme Court of the US
Federal Trade Commission
independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. Its principal mission is the promotion of consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of anticompetitive business practices

-Pres. Wilson's major acts against trusts- during progressive era
Progressivism
died out after WWI
WWI
was a global military conflict that took place mostly in Europe between 1914 and 1918

-The Allied Powers, led by France, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, and later, Italy and the United States, defeated the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, the German Empire, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire.

-North Sea to the border of Switzerland

-World War I created a decisive break with the old world order that had emerged after the Napoleonic Wars, which was modified by the mid-19th century’s nationalistic revolutions
Prohibition
Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal

-18th Ammendment- outlawing sale of beverages
Henry FOrd
founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry

"Fordism", that is, the mass production of large numbers of inexpensive automobiles using the assembly line
Charles Augustus Lindbergh
), known as "Lucky Lindy" and "The Lone Eagle," was an American pilot famous for the first solo, non-stop flight from New York to Paris in 1927 in the Spirit of St. Louis. In the ensuing deluge of notoriety, Lindbergh became the world's best-known aviator.

-favored keeping US out of the war
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois
attempted virtually every possible solution to the problem of twentieth-century racism—scholarship, propaganda, integration, cultural and economic separatism, politics, international communism, expatriation, third world solidarity