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19 Cards in this Set

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catalase
breaks down hydrogen peroxide to form water and oxygen
coagulase
is a protein or proteins produced by S. aureus which interacts with fibrinogen in the plasma of blood
protein A
binds immunoglobulin IgG
Staphlococcci morphology
gram positive cocci with tendency to grow in cultures
Staphylococcus Aureus-metabolism
1) catalase +
2) coagulase +
3) Facultative anaerobe
Staphylococcus Aureus- Virulence
Protective proteins:
1)Protein A: binds IgG, preventing opsonization and phagocytosis
2) Coagulase: allows fibrin formation around organism
3)Hemolysins
4) Leukocidins
5) Penicilinase

Tissue Destroying Proteins:
1) Hyaluronidase: Breaks down connective tissue
2) Staphylokinase: lyses formed clots
3) Lipase
Staphylococcus Aureus- Toxins
Assault Weaponry
1) Exfoliatin: scalded skin syndrome
2) Enterotoxin: food poisoning
3) Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1)
Staphylococcus Aureus- Clinical
A. Exotoxin Dependent
1. Gastroenteritis (food poisoning): Rapid onset of vomiting & diarrhea, with rapid recovery

2. Toxic shock syndrome:
a. High fever
b. Nausea and vomiting
c. Watery diarrhea
d. Erythematous rash
e. Hypotension
f. Desquamation of palms and soles

3. Scalded skin syndrome


B. Direct Invasion
1. Pneumonia
2. Meningitis
3. Osteopmyelitis (in children)
4. Acute bacterial endocarditis
5. Septic arthritis
6. Skin infection
7. Bacteremia/sepsis
8. Urinary tract infection
Staphylococcus Aureus- Treatment
1. Penicillinase- resistant penicillins
2. Vancomycin
3. Clindamycin

*If methicillin-resistant: treat with intravenous vancomycin
Staphylococcus Aureus- Diagnostics
1) Gram stain: reveals gram positive cocci in clusters

2)Culture:
A. Beta-Hemolytic
B. Produces a golden yellow pigment

3)Metabolic
A. Catalase positive
B. Coagulase positive
Staphylococcus Epidermis-metabolism
1) Catalase +
2) Coagulase -
2) Facultative Anaerobe
Staphylococcus Epidermis-Virulence
1) Polysaccharide capsule: adheres to a variety of prosthetic divices
2) Highly resistant to antibiotics
Staphylococcus Epidermis-Clinical
A. Nosocomial infections:
1. Prosthetic joints
2. Prosthetic heart valves
3. Sepsis from intravenous lines
4. Urinary tract infections

B. Frequent skin contaminant in blood culturs
Staphylococcus Epidermis-Treatment
Vancomycin (since resistant to multiple antibiotics)
Staphylococcus Epidermis-Diagnostics
1. Gram stain: reveals gram positive cocci in clusters
2. Culture
3. Metabolic
A. Catalase +
B. Coagulase -
Staphylococcus Saprophyticus-Metabolism
1. Catalase +
2. Coagulase -
3. Facultative anaerobe
Staphylococcus Saprophyticus-Clinical
Urinary Tract infection in sexually active young women
Staphylococcus Saprophyticus-Treatment
penicillin
Staphylococcus Saprophyticus-Diagnostics
1. Gram stain: reveals gram positive cocci in clusters
2. Culture
3. Metabolic
A. Catalase +
B. Coagulase -