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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Solicitor General
A presidential appointee and the 3rd making office in the Dept. of Justice. The solicitor general is in charge of the appellate court litigation of the federal government. They are careful to seek court review only of important cases. They are also another influence on the court.
Stare Decisis
A latin phrase meaning "let the decision stand". Most cases reaching appellate jurisdiction are settled on this principle. This means that an earlier decision should hold for the case being considered.
Judicial Review
The power of the courts to strike down any act made by Congress or coordinate branches that conflict with the Constitution. Judicial Review was established in Marbury v. Madison and it is the ultimate power.
Judicial Restraint
A policy that many judges and scholars favor. A judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policymaking roles, leaving that duty strictly to the legislatures. Advocates of judicial restraint believe that decisions such as those on abortion and prayer in schools go well beyond the "referee role" they say is appropriate for courts in a democracy.
Judicial Activism
Where judges make bolder policy decisions, even charting new constitutional ground with a particular decision. Advocates of judicial activism emphasize that the courts may alleviate pressing needs left unmet by the majoritarian political process.
Unemployment Rate
The percentage of Americans seeking to work who are unable to find it. Young adults usually face more serious unemployment problems than other sectors of the population. When the unemployment rate increases, public opinion pushes policymakers to do more to expand employment.
Monetary Policy
This is the gov'ts main economic policy. It is also the manipulation of the supply of money in private hands which the gov't can control the economy. The most important tool the gov't had to manage the economy is the money supply.
Federal Reserve System
This is the main agency for making monetary policy. It was created by Congress in 1913 to regulate the lending practices of banks and the $ supply. The FRS can also influence the state of the economy.
Poverty Line
A method used to count the # of poor people and considers waht a family must spend for an "austere" standard of living. A count of the poor people for 1 yr. can conceal millions who drop into and out of poverty.
Progressive Tax
Takes a bigger bite from the incomes of the rich than from those of the poor. As you make more money, your burden (tax) goes up. It doesn't stay the same.
Proportional Tax
Takes the same percentage from everyone rich and poor alike. For example, a rich and poor family both pay 20%.
Regressive Tax
Takes a higher percentage of those at lower income levels than from the well-to-do. Examples: Sales tax, Medical tax, IL-income tax, and user fees.
A program designed to provide healthcare for poor Americans. It's funded by both the state and nat'l gov'ts. It is also a means-tested program and is for the poorest of the poor.