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44 Cards in this Set

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civilization
societty that is capable of: urban ocieties, complicated institutions, technologically advances, monumental architectures.
Urban societies
cities, can build
complicated institutions
religion, economics and politics
technologically advanced
tools: computer or wrench
monumental architectures
huge buildings
ethnocentric
to judge others by standards of own group
syncretism
mixing the ideas or beliefs
temporal chouvnism
(time) (biased/prejudice)
to judge people of the pst by the judgments of the present
environmental determinism
everythigng in human history (music, skin color, politics) ave been influenced by the relationships of the environment
The rise of the west took place in what century?
19th century
What did the Chinese do in the 15th century?
they sent fleets all around the world and then was the dominating nation.
What happened with the Europeans in Europe?
Europe was a terrible place to live so the Europeans became exploreres and they couldn't wait to explore and settle in the world.

In the meantime, China was a great place to live.
Why did the western society start to take a great jump?
Industrialism
Which was the first industrializing country?
Western europe
Industrialism
economy is based on the ability to mass production

Answer: cost, saving, machinery

All the technology is to make humanity efficient.
What influences mass consumerism?
advertising influences mass consumerism

United states is the highest consumer country

China helps the US to keep their economy-> mass consumerism
Mass consumering = ?
=mass industrialization
What were the problems with industrialism?
agricultural society vs. industrial society
What was the first industiralized nation?
Britain
What do you need to be an industrialized nation?
resources (fuel- coal)
money (a lot - ventric capitalism - slave trade)
labor (cheap-enclosure movement)
business friendly government
What was the Enclosure Movement
When the government sold the commons to the wealthy.
They believed that the wealthy or fewer people would use the land more efficently.

This then drives the small owners to leave to the town and become cheap labor.
What was the first industrialized institution?
textile industry- spinning jenny
Besides railrays, which was the best form of transportation?
Steam Engine

James Watt improved the steam engine

Portable power - machine running = factories

steam ships = transport = marketing

mass production = mass consumerism = mass market
When did industrialism spread to Europe
beginning 19th century
Nationalism?
political system that convinces a large number of diverse people tht they are all the same people

Which then exploits mass marketing/ consumerism
Problems in Britain?
serious environmental problems:
posionouss waste, no regulations

live in bad homes

prostitution, very high numbers included homeless women in the older 30-40s. had children, had husband and alcohol
Why was alcohol cheap in britain?
Government subsidize alcohol...

which lowered the potential for revolution
socialism
political economic system

belief that everybody in a state should have a minimal share/standard of living

tax the rich to support the poor

California is one of the most socialist states
Who was Karl Marx?
German Socialist, he gets kicked our of Germany and lands in london in 1820s

Created communism, sees the worset in industrialism and then comes up with a communism theory

we never had a marxism communist country
What was the struggle between the Bourgeousie and Proletallate?
Bourgeousie - wealth and property
Proletallate - working class

Bourgeousie wanted to divide the Proletallate so they can go against each other and keep Bourgeousie in power
What are the 3 stages every society goes through?
capitalism, socialism, and communism
how can we mass produce and lower the prices?
Cut overhead: cut wages

Eventually will be bankrupt and collapse

After capitalism collapses, the Proletallate will rise.
What was a response to the Industrialization?
Marxist communism
What hasn't industrialization spread to America?
Manifest Destiny

God given right to colonized America

Spread all over North America and to occupy it with civilization

So then they could send representatives to D.C
1820? What compromised?
Missouri COmpromise balances the north and south

Missouri = Maine
1860? What war?
Civil War.

Presidential Election: Abraham Lincoln.
Maintains the union untial 1863 topic of slavery comes in.
What brought a positive outlook towards Industrialization in 1840s?
Immigration

Came mostly from northwest europe (The english and Irish)

1860s, Irish came because of the potato famine, they worked on railways

Chinese were recruited for cheap labor
Who immigrated to America in the 1880s?
South and Central Europe (Italians, jews, polish, germans)

Germans are the largest populated immigrant group
1882 What act?
Immigration act attempted to halt and restrict immigrants from China but wanted Curopans
Problems of industrialism in America?
Inequality of wealth

Mark Twain called it the Gilded Age during the late 1900s

Andrew Carniegie - steel
John B Rockefeller - oil - first billionaire


Industrialism took up all the land and used all the resources
What was the 1896 Census?
Urban = 52%
Rural = 48%
it was the end of the frontier
Transcentalism
Ralph Waldo Emersion and Henry David Thoreau

argued that we need nature and it is a part of culture.

Yellowstone National Park was the 1st national park

Central park is famous
Frederick Jackson Turner 1898, The Importance of the Frontier in American Theory
Said that we are the result of the Frontier

John Muir, 1st strong component of conservation

said we ned to preserve nature and fought for Yosemite park

Established the Sierra Club
What were the preservationists / Conservationists?
Preservationists: protect nature for nature's sake.

Conservationists: believes nature needs to be used and maintain/ use nature responsibly

John Muir was a preservationist