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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who used the term Psychology first?
What was the original meaning of Psychology?
The Essence of Life
What is the definition of Psychology?
The science of Behavior and Mental processes.
What are the three main parts of Psychology and an explanation of each?
1. Science - Because it attempts to understand people through careful, controlled, observations

2. Behavior - which refers to people's overt actions that can be seen or observed.

3. Mental Processes - Refers to the private thoughts, emotions, feelings, and motive that can not be seen or observed.
What are the four goals of the science of Psychology and an explanation of each?
1. Describe - Information gathered helps the Psychologist describe and explain better Psychological phenomena.

2. Predict - through their studies, Psychologist can predict or guess what might happen in the future.

3. Understand - Once the behaviors can be understood they can be explained.

4. Influence - Psychologists hope to go past description, understanding, and prediction to influence or change or correct behaviors.
Explain what a theory is and to which goal of Psychology it is closely related to.
A theory is a tentative explanation of facts & relationships in science. It is related to the "Understanding" goal.
Psychology was a part of _______ until modern times.
What was the first topic examined by psychologists?
Private Conscious Experiences
Which group first used "introspection"?
Chemists - Wundt and Titchener
What does introspection mean?
Introspection means the method of looking inward to one's own conscious experiences.
Wundt and Titchener were major figures in which Psychologist group?
What school of thought did Wertheimer follow?
What does Gestalt mean?
The Whole
Define or explain Gestalt Psychology.
The human consciousness cannot be broke down and must be addressed as a whole.
William James was a major figure in what Psychology movement?
What did functionalism emphasize?
It emphasized the HUMAN functions of CONSCIOUSNESS
What is Psychometrics?
The measure of mental functions.
Who was a major figure in psychometrics?
Alfred Binet
Which school of thought emphasizes the process of learning and the measurement of overt behaviors.
Cognitive Psychology
What was Ivan Pavlov famous for?
Pavlov was able to prove that certain inherited reflexes could be taught or conditioned to respond to an outside stimulus.
John B. Watson felt that only outward, Overt behavior should be studied and called this theory _______.
Sigmund Freud founded this theory.
Freud believed that psychological problems were innate ______ that reside in the unconscious mind.
Carl Rogers was a major figure in the school of _____ psychology.
What are two perspectives of psychology discussed?
Neuroscience and Sociocultural
Cajal first discovered _____ and thus discovered the importance of the _____ in psychology.
Neurons - Brain
Neuroscience refers to people that are interested in what?
The Structures of the Brain
What is Socioperspective?
The Sociocultural Perspective states that it is impossible to really understand a person without understanding their Culture.
What is the patterns of behavior, beliefs, and values shared by a group of people?
A group of persons who are descendants of a common group on ancestors.
Ethnic Group
Each person's sense of belonging to a particular ethnic group.
Ethnic Identity
One's view of one's self as male or female.
Gender Identity
The perspective that promotes thinking of different cultures in relative terms rather than judgmental terms.
Cultural Relativity
List the 8 concepts of psychology shared by most psychologists.
1. Human Beings are biological creatures.

2. Every person is different, but much the same.

3. People can be understood fully only within the context of their culture, ethnic identity, and gender identity.

4. Human lives are a continuing process of change.

5. Behavior is motivated.

6. Humans are social animals.

7. People play an active part in creating their experiences.

8. Behavior can be adaptive or maladaptive.
Explain the differences between Psychologists and Psychiatrists.
Psychologists study Psychology but have not attended Medical School, Psychiatrists have.

Psychiatrist have medical degrees and can prescribe medication, psychologists cannot.
List a describe the major divisions of Applied Psychology.
1. Clinical Psychology - Treat emotional problems and try to correct abnormal behavior.

2. Counseling Psychology - Help people with personal problems, school and life choices.

3. Industrial and Organizational Psychology - matches employees with jobs, careers, and skills.

4. Educational and School Psychology - Consult with teachers, parents, students, conduct school testing and student counseling.

5. Health Psychology - deal with counseling and education concerning health issues.
List and Describe the basic areas of Modern Psychology.
1. Biological Psychology - Study animal and human behavior; learn how the nervous system effects behavior.

2. Sensation and Perception - How we perceive incoming information or senses and the perception.

3. Learning and Memory - Studies the ways we learn and memorize new information.

4. Cognition - This deals with all intelligent actions; thinking, creating, speaking, listening, etc...

5. Developmental Psychology - deals with changes in people during their life times; birth to death.

6. Motivation and Emotion - Deals with the needs of people and how they are related to good behavior.

7. Personality - Deals with the regular way people act that creates their personalities.

8. Social Psychology - Deals with the influence of others on behavior; mobs, groups, peer groups, etc...

9. Sociocultural Psychology - Deals with ethnic, cultural, gender, and sexual orientation issues.