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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List and explain the 6 methods of essay development.
1. Narration - (tells what happened) detailed account of what happened.

2. Description - (what does it look like) Gives a verbal portrait of a person, place, or thing.

3. Process Analysis - (how so you like it) A sequence of actions or changes that bring about a result.

4. Comparison - (How its similar and different) exams how 2 more things are similar/different.

5. Classification - (what kind of subdivision does it contain) organizes info into groups or categories. First you explain or define them and then divide it into smaller categories.

6. Definition - (how would you categorize it) provides a needed explanation of a word or concept.
List and explain the 4 requirements for a good paragraph.
1. Unity - Each sentence should show a clear connection to the sentence before and to the Topic Sentence.

2. Completeness - Provide enough info to explain, but not too much.

3. Order - Organization so that the paragraph moves in only one direction.

4. Coherence - Must flow easily so the reader can move from sentence to sentence.
List the 3 types of special paragraphs.
1. Introductory
2. Transitional
3. Concluding
List five ways to achieve coherence.
1. Pronoun reference
2. Contrasted Elements
3. Repetitive Structure
4. Transitional Markers
5. Connection between paragraphs
List and explain the 4 directions of movement of topical paragraphs.
1. General to Particular - General info moves toward specific info.

2. Particular to General - Specific info moves to more general info.

3. Whole to Parts - Made into divisions and each paragraph defines each division.

4. Question to Answer/Cause to Effect - The Question or Effect are listed first and then followed by the Answer or Cause in the paragraph
List the 3 characteristics of jargon.
1. Highly Abstract
2. Excessive use of passive voice
3. Wordiness
Words used by educated people in formal occasions.
a. Colloquial Words
b. Learned Words
c. Slang Words
d. Popular Words
Learned Words
Words that are basic and used in everyday communications and belong to the populace.
a. Colloquial Words
b. Learned Words
c. Slang Words
d. Popular Words
Popular Words
Words that have the characteristics of or appropriate to the spoken and written language, informal in diction or style of expression.
a. Colloquial Words
b. Learned Words
c. Slang Words
d. Popular Words
Colloquial Words
Language of a highly colloquial type, also consider an insiders language.
a. Colloquial Words
b. Learned Words
c. Slang Words
d. Popular Words
Slang Words
A word's explicit meaning.
a. Colloquial
b. Connotation
c. Denotation
d. Learned words
Denotation
A word's implicit meaning.
a. Colloquial
b. Connotation
c. Denotation
d. Learned words
Connotation
Compares 2 things - A & B - identifying one with the other; A is B...not A is like B.
a. Analogy
b. Metaphor
c. Simile
d. Personification
Metaphor
Compares 2 things - A & B - asserting that one is like the other and often uses "like" and "as".
a. Analogy
b. Metaphor
c. Simile
d. Personification
Simile
A figure of speech by which inanimate objects or abstractions are given human or animal characteristics.
a. Analogy
b. Metaphor
c. Simile
d. Personification
Personification
An extended metaphor, through sentences or paragraphs that persuades the reader that 2 things are alike.
a. Analogy
b. Metaphor
c. Simile
d. Personification
Analogy
The ways that something is written.
a. Tone
b. Style
c. Jargon
d. Allusion
Style
First meant meaningless chatter, now it means a specialized language of a group or profession.
a. Tone
b. Style
c. Jargon
d. Allusion
Jargon
Comparison between a historical, literature, or mythological event or person and the subject being discussed.
a. Tone
b. Style
c. Jargon
d. Allusion
Allusion
List three ways to expand sentences by modification.
1. Adjectives
2. Adverb Phrases
3. Clauses
List three ways to combine sentences.
1. Combining sentences by coordination
2. combining sentences by subordination
3. Combining sentences using parallel structure.
List 4 reasons to revise sentences.
1. Revise for Clarity
2. Revise for emphasis
3. Revise for economy
4. Revise for variety
List 4 ways to create purposeful emphasis.
1. Emphatic word order
2. Emphatic repetition
3. Climactic order
4. Emphatic Voice
List 2 ways to eliminate wordiness.
1. Delete useless words and phrases.
2. Substitute more economic words and phrases.
List three qualities of effective diction.
1. Appropriateness
2. Specificity
3. Imagery
List 4 reasons to revise diction.
1. Vagueness
2. Jargon
3. Triteness
4. Ineffective imagery
List and explain the 3 most important sentence types.
1. The Balanced Sentence - 2 coordinates but contrasting structures are set off against each other like weights on a scale.

2. Periodic Sentence - Builds to a climactic statement in its final main clause.

3. Cumulative Sentence - (Loose Sentence) reverses the Periodic sentence order by placing the main idea first and then explains or gives examples.