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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Explain “Logical Behaviorism”
Logical Behavorism (essentially the same as the “behaviorism” that we’ve already learned about) is a particular type of materialistic stance on the mind-body issue. It is distinguished from the views of functionalists and indentity theorists by its insistence on discounting, or at the very least ignoring, the existence of internal mental objects or events. Such things as sensations, beliefs, feelings, and ideas are described simply in terms of dispositions to perform certain observable behaviors. For example, a belief in (the christian)God would be described, by a logical behaviorist, as a disposition to pray, attend church regularly, prosyletize to others, and perform acts of charity. On a more fundamental level, pain would be described as a disposition to emit shrieks or moans of anguish and to avoid in the future that which is the cause of the pain. Logical behaviorism is not widely accepted today, as most philosophers and psychologists see it as a gross oversimplification of the human psychology.
What are raw feels?
Raw feels are mental states characterized by a sensation.
Some examples of raw feels are itches, tickles, and pains. Things like thoughts, beliefs, and desires are not raw feels
Personal Identity
The diachronic (meaning over time) issue of personal identity concerns the conditions under which a person at one time is the same person at another time. Integral to this issue then are the definition of a “person” and conditions for identifying a person over time.
The synchronic (at one moment) problem of personal identity deals with the question of what constitutes personhood.
Is it possible to come up with a concrete definition of one's personhood?
Giving one’s personhood a concrete definition follows the assumption that one’s personal identity remains unchanged over time. But if we agree with the view that personal identity is a social construct, then it follows that personal identity is mutable. If personhood is defined by one’s interactions with one’s social environment, then personhood could change along with changes in the external social environment. Sartre claims that a person is not only the function of the facts about himself and the way he thinks about himself, but also a function of the way others think about him and what they do about it. The context and motives of others are crucial to personhood. Hegel introduces the concept of recognition, which requires that others recognize us in order for us to identify ourselves. This social atmosphere leads to the idea that personal identity is “a spectacularly dynamic conception” (Solomon, 183).
What are dispositions?
Dispositions are inclinations or tendencies to behave in a certain way under certain circumstances.

Ex. A brittle object is one that has the tendency to break; it will shatter if struck.
What are the factors that affect our capacity to remain the same person over time?
Pressure from society, cultural responses to our actions, social standing (place and position), past personal history, and past history of class group are all factors that affect our capacity to remain the same person over time.

John Locke invesitgated this when he and other philosophers began to realize the significance of the ontological view.
bodily criterion
The bodily criterion for personal identiy states that identiy is based on physical characteristics.
Example: We can establish that we are looking at Mark by noticing his tall frame and scruffy features.
What are qualia?
Philosophers often use the term ‘qualia’ (singular ‘quale’) to refer to the introspectively accessible, phenomenal aspects of our mental lives. In this standard, broad sense of the term, it is difficult to deny that there are qualia. Disagreement typically centers on which mental states have qualia, whether qualia are intrinsic qualities of their bearers, and how qualia relate to the physical world both inside and outside the head. The status of qualia is hotly debated in philosophy largely because it is central to a proper understanding of the nature of consciousness.
What is solipsism?
Solipsism is the belief that only one's self truly exists or can be proven to exist. One who believes this is skeptical of the existance of any other mind but his/her own.
What is "Epiphenomenalism" ?
The concept that mental states are just works of the brain that do not "influence a behavior or other mental states."

An example of this is for you to imagine and believe that a simple state of mind exists at this moment, but it is not changing the way you act or any other mental state that you will eventually have.
The Mind-brain identity theory
The Mind-brain identity theory claims that mental states are identical with brain states. For example, a pain can be classified by its electrochemical signature, as seen in the brain.
What is momentary consciousness?
Momentary conscoiusness is a collection of awarenesses occurring at the same time and united in a single awarewness. For example, as you eat an orange, your awareness of the taste, smell, looks, and feel of the orange forms a momentary consciousness.
What is the Human Condition?
The human condition includes the totality of the experience of being human and living human lives. Human condition also describes the ongoing way in which humans react, interact, and cope with different events in everyday life. Being a mortal human also involves certain biological determined events, which are common for most human lives