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162 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Plagal Cadence
Imperfect Cadence
Interupted Cadence
Perfect Cadence
2 or more choirs singing
2 or more alternating Groups like Question and Answer
Whole Consort
Group of Renaissance instruments playing together fromt he same family
Broken Consort
Group of Renaissance instruments playing together from different families
Different Layers
Different rhythms at same time (world/20th centure)
parts imitating each other, copying
Like a canon, very strict, no variation
Simple Time
Beat is divided into 2
Compound Time
Beat is divided into 3 (beat is a dotted quarter note)
held note from previous chord to provide dissonance
written in one time signature but sounds like another
soloist & orchestra
same pattern of notes moving up or down
very close imitation (one starts before other finishes)
Augmented Chord
all M3rds
Diminished chord
all m3rds
Off Beat rhythm
Contrapuntal composition based on imitation with four voices
Dissonant note that is one note above or below the consonant note in a chord (ends of phrases)
texture in which two voices go in two different directions fostering dissonance, but with the same rhythm, begining, and ending
Atonal Music
Based on a chromatic scale
Two groups physically seperated
World Music
Features of Counterpoint
many sounds; same melody occuring many times; different things fitting together @ same time; interweaving
Definition of a Fugue
Contrapuntal composition based on imitation with 4 voices
Exposition of a Fugue
*1st voice subject in I
*2nd voice with answer in V (real or tonal dominant)
*3rd voice subject
*4th voice answer
***All voices are equally important
Codetta in Fugue
extra material added to exposition between subject & answer
Countersubject in Fugue
answer enters & 1st voice continues against answer
Stretto as Device
Crowding together of entries features energy, climax, urgency
(used at the end)
Inversion as Device
Theme is turned upside down
Augmentation/Diminuition as Devices
theme is heard in longer/shorter notes (often double/half)
Pedal as Device
long sustained Tonic or Dominant, usually lowest & often ends in the Cadence
Episodes in a Fugue
Passages of Free composition similar to exposition
*does not contain subject
*divided by random entries of subj/answer in many keys
Short fugue without exposition
Fugato, Fugal
Imitative style of fugue but not exact
African untuned drum with buffalo skin
African Wooden xylophone-type instrument
African vibrating "fun" piano-like?
Cross Rhythm
2 Rhythms playing against each other
In a singing style; song-like
Off Beat rhythm
Classical Period (Dates)
Classical Style is characterized by ______ & ________ _ ____
Balance & Clarity of structure
A short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern that is repeated
Smooth, connected melody that moves principally by small intervals.
German dance in moderate duple time, popular during the Renaissance and Baroque periods; often the first movement of a Baroque suite.
Total abandonment of tonality (centering in a key). Atonal music moves from one level of dissonance to another, without areas of relaxation.
Disjointed or disconnected melody with many leaps.
binary form
Two-part (A-B) form
Lively French Baroque dance type in duple meter.
Virtuosic solo passage in the manner of an improvisation, performed near the end of an aria or a movement of a concerto.
Vocal genre for solo singers, chorus and instrumentalists based on a lyric or dramatic poetic narrative. It generally consists of several movements including recitatives, arias and ensemble numbers.
The last part of a piece, usually added to a standard form to bring it to a close.
Codetta in Sonata
In sonata form, the concluding section of the exposition. Also a brief coda concluding an inner section of a work.
Concert Overture
Single-movement concert piece for orchestra, typically from the Romantic period and often based on a literary program.
Instrumental genre in several movements for solo instrument (or instrumental group) and orchestra.
French Baroque dance, a standard movement of the suite, in triple meter at a moderate tempo.
Structural reshaping of thematic material. Second section of sonata-allegro form; it moves through a series of foreign keys while themes from the exposition are manipulated.
Classical instrumental genre for chamber ensemble or soloist, often performed as light entertainment.
Playing two notes simultaneously on a string instrument.
Bowed, two-string fiddle from China, with its bow hairs fixed between the strings; rests on the leg while playing.
Chinese Moon Guitar (looks like a banjo)
Chinese Lute
Xiao, Dizi
Chinese Flutes
Jinghu, Banhu
Chinese First Fiddle, wooden fiddle
Chinese Large Drum
Chinese Hand clappers
Xiaolo, dalo, bo
Chinese small gong, large gong, cymbals
Aleatoric Form
music in which some element of the composition is left to chance or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer(1950s)
French Overture
Baroque instrumental introduction to an opera, ballet or suite, in two sections: a slow opening followed by an allegro, often with a brief return to the opening.
Lively, triple-meter French court dance.
Duple meter Baroque dance type of a pastoral character
Popular English Baroque dance type, a standard movement of the Baroque suite, in a lively compound meter.
Rapid slide through pitches of a scale.
Wen & Wu
Wen- civil sections (singing, string & wind instruments)
Wu- Battle sections (percussion instruments)
2 characteristics of Chinese music
heterophonic, improvisation
Rhythm in Chinese music
4/4, no notation
Slendro Scale
5 Notes
Pelog Scale
7 notes scale
Core melody in Gamelan
Balinese Gamelan
Faster, celebratory, tourism, puppets
Javanese Gamelan
Slower, Religious
Gamelan Form
Repetitive, Cyclic
Saron Demung, Barung, Penerus
Main instrument lowest, middle, and highest pitch (peking)
Interlocking Melody
Sharing Melody
Hanging Gongs
2 rows of brass bowls
Wooden xylaphone-like
Italian Overture
Baroque overture consisting of three sections: fast - slow - fast.
3 sides of bowls
2 bowls, punctuating
Siwuk, gong ageng
Jia Hua
Literally "adding flowers"; an embellishment style in Chinese music using various ornamental figures.
Relaxed Rhythm
Order of Sharps
Chorale Prelude
Baroque- based on chorale melody w/variations
Instrumental Baroque Forms
Conzona, ricercar, toccata, fantasia, variations (chaconne & passacaglia)
Renaissance secular work originating in Italy for voices, with or without instruments, set to a short, lyric love poem; also popular in England.
a cappella choral singing style of South African Zulus, featuring call and response patterns, close-knit harmonies and syncopation.
Characterizes music that is based on modes other than major and minor, especially the early church modes.
Vocal style established in the Baroque, with a solo singer and instrumental accompaniment.
Melodic style with two to four notes set to each syllable.
An introductory movement, as in an opera or oratorio, often presenting melodies from arias to come. Also an orchestral work for concert performance.
Baroque form (similar to the chaconne) in moderately slow triple meter, based on a short, repeated base-line melody that serves as the basis for continuous variation in the other voices.
Stately Renaissance court dance in duple meter.
Stately Polish processional dance in triple meter.
Third section of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is restated, generally in the tonic. Also restatement.
Solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text, often resulting in a disjunct vocal style; found in opera, cantata, and oratorio.
short recurring passage that unifies an instrumental or vocal work.
Medieval and Renaissance fixed poetic form and chanson type with courtly love texts.
"Borrowed time", common in Romantic music, in which the performer hesitates here or hurries forward there, imparting flexibility to the written note values. Also tempo rubato.
Italian "jumping dance", often characterized by triplets in a rapid 4/4 time.
Restatement of an idea or motive at a different pitch level.
Classical instrumental genre that combines elements of chamber music and symphony, often performed in the evening or at social functions. Related to divertimento and cassation.
Sonata da camer
Baroque chamber sonata, usually a suite of stylized dances. Also chamber sonata.
Sonata da Chiesa
Baroque instrumental work intended for performance in church; in four movements, frequently arranged slow-fast-slow-fast. Also church sonata.
Sonata Form
The opening movement of the sonata cycle, consisting of themes that are stated in the first section (exposition), developed in the second section (development), and restated in the third section (recapitulation). Also sonata form or first-movement form.
Baroque style developed by Monteverdi, which introduced novel effects such as rapid repeated notes as symbols of passion.
Stile Rapppresentativo
A dramatic recitative style of the Baroque period in which melodies move freely over a foundation of simple chords.
Multimovement work made up of a series of contrasting dance movements, generally all in the same key. Also partita and ordre.
Ternary Form
Three-part (A-B-A) form based on a statement (A), contrast or departure (B), and repetition (A). Also three-part form.
Terraced Dynamics
Expressive style typical of Baroque music in which volume levels shift based on the playing forces used.
Tertian Harmony
armony based on the interval of the third, particularly predominant from the Baroque through the nineteenth century.
Virtuoso composition, generally for organ or harpsichord, in a free and rhapsodic style; in the Baroque, it often served as the introduction to a fugue.
Rapid repetition of a tone; can be achieved instrumentally or vocally.
Trio Sonata
Baroque chamber sonata type written in three parts: two melody lines and the basso continuo; requires a total of four players to perform.
Medieval and Renaissance fixed poetic form and chanson type with French courtly texts.
Baroque Instrumental Suite: 5 Parts
1. Allemande 2. Courante 3. Sarabande 4. Gigue
Concerto Grosso Baroque
2 contrasting groups of instruments* smalle soloists & strings (Ripieno/tutti) & continuo
Solo Concerto Baroque
instrumental solo v. orchestra
Renaissance bas & haut instruments
bas- low for home, haut- loud for halls, churches
wooden, double reed
Whole Consort
instruments from same family
Broken Consort
Instruments from different families
Classical Style: Timbre
Variety & contrast of mood (more expressive)
Classical Style: Rhythm
Flexibility of rhythm (pauses, syncopations, changes)
Classical Style: Texture
Classical Style: Melody
Balanced & symmetrical. Tuneful & song-like
Classical Style: Dymanics
crescendo, decresendo & in between
Classical Style: Instrumentation
Larger orchestra, exploited individual tone colors of orchestral instruments
Form: Classical Symphony
1. Fast movement 2. Slow 3. Dance-like 4. Fast *Contrasting
Dramatic Soprano
Full powered, passionate, and intense
Coloratura Soprano
very high, agile soprano- can sing rapid scales and trills
Comic opera with spoken Dialogue
Opera Seria
Serious Opera
Opera Buffa
comic opera
Brilliant Style
Classical Style with sequential passages of fast figuration for a virtuoso or emotional effect
Learned Style
Contrapuntal writing in Classical Period
French Overture Style
Classical Period Slow, stately, dotted rhythms, ceremonial
Singing style
lyrical music, like arias for instruments
Thematic Material
Classical: built around a musical theme, *gestures, calls to attention
Manknheim Rocket
Rising Arpessio or scale motif (shows virtuosity) Classical Period
Use of repeated notes, pedal notes, establish & reiterate key in tonic or dominant (Trommelbasse)
Alberti Bass
broken chord accompaniment
Classical Conce3rto
1. Fast 2. Slow 3. Fast
- begins: 2 expositions, first orchestra (several themes in home key)
Divertimento & Serenade
Light works for informal occasions (humorous, outdoors)