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61 Cards in this Set

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The time frame of the Baroque period is.......
1600-1750
Three of the most significant composers of the period were....
J.S. Bach, George F. Handel, Antionio Vivaldi
Monody
A single line of melody accompanied by an instrument playing chords underneath
Three significant composers of early opera in the Baroque were...
Montiverdi, Peri, Caccini
Intermedii
a genre in which a spoken plays is intersperse with songs and dance numbers
What is Monody?
A vocal melody (only one)accompanied by an instrument that would play chords underneath.
the texture of Baroque music
What is Continuo?
Continuo is the accompaniment part within a homophonic texture, in which a keyboard instrument or sometimes a lute plays a supporting bass line. The composer would write out a single melodic line, and then add figures beneath it to indicate which harmonies the performer should add to it in order to fill out the texture.
What does Baroque music seek?
Baroque music seeks to evoke strong emotional responses in listeners and to surprise and pique their interest. THis principle was called varietas.
What was the first opera ever composed?
Jacopo Peri's Euridice in 1600 with text by Ottavio Rinuccini.
what is a chorale?
it is a hymn tune, specifically one associated with german protestantism.
What is cantata?
Cantata is a work for vocalists, chorius, and instrumentalists based on a poetic narractive of a lyric or dramtic nature.
What is Ritornello?
Ritornello is a term related to the english "return", originally denoted an instrumental passage hear at the begining and end of an aria, now came to mean a passasge that returned again and again in the manner of refrain.
What is the castrato?
the artificial male soprano or alto who dominated the operatic scene of the early 18th century.
What is improvisation?
Performers embellish what is written down when they are playing.
what is "Stile Rappresentativo"?
a representational style consisting of a melody that moved freely over a foundation of simple chords
what did operas depict?
operas gave opportunity for picturesque scenes, interesting local color, and dances that might not have been authentic but that delighted audiences through their appeal to the imagination
Who was one of the renowned women composer?
French composer Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre
What are "Terraced dynamics"?
a passage uniformly loud, that would be followed by one uniformly soft, creating the effects of light and shade
what happened in the rise of the virtuoso musicians
it made it possible for composers to write works that demanded a more advanced playing technique
Specifically, what is baroque music?
The style of polyphonic music containing elaborate ornamentation and contrasting elements.
What else was happening in Europe during the Baroque period?
The Baroque period was an age of scientific progress. It was the age of the scientific discoveries of Galileo and Newton, the mathematical advances of Descartes, Newton and Leibnitz, and the philosophical explorations of Descartes, Spinoza and Locke. There was a new and vibrant intellectual, artistic and social atmosphere which in so many ways signaled the birth of modern Europe. This was also an era of absolute monarchy, where the entire government of a country could be the personal property of an individual.
What instrument making reached its highest point during the Baroque period?
violin
What are the two most universal stylistic elements of Baroque music?
continuo, also called thorough bass, and ornamentation. Both involve the difference between what the composer wrote down and what the performer played. Both are elements of musical style which derived from Renaissance music and persisted into early Classical music.
What is one distinct figure of Baroque music in terms of emotions?
A distinctive feature of Baroque music is that each piece (or single movement within a multi-movement piece) limits itself to only one of the emotions.
What are the four main dances in a Baroque dance suite? TH
The Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, and Gigue
What is the standard form for the dances of the Baroque suite? TH
AABB form
What is a Fugue? TH
A fugue is a contrapuntal composition in which a theme of strongly marked character pervades the entire fabric, entering in one voice and then in another. It is consequently based on the principle of imitation
What is very important in fugal writing? TH
The Key
What is a Basso Buffo? TH
A Basso Buffo is a singer with a low range who usually takes on comic roles
What are some other terms for the word 'embellishment'? TH
ornamentation, agrement
What is the Italian overture?
Three movement form
Fast slow fast

A.W.
What is the French Overture?
Baroque instrumental introduction to an opera, ballet, or suite, in two sections: a slow opening floolwed by an Allegro, ofent with a brief return to the opening.

A.W.
What is a Baroque Suite?
A collection of dances all inthe same key and usually in binary form. Often preceded by an overture.

A.W.
What is Cocerto Grosso?
Contains the "contrast" element.
Small group of 2-4 people. Three movements: Allegro - Adagio/andante-Allegro. INcluded a unifying refrain called "ritornello".

A.W.
What is a Sonata?
Either a movement in several sections or several movements contrasting in tempo and texture.

A.W.
Identify the two most universal style elements of Baroque music. wh
Continuo (thorough bass) and Ornamentation
Define ornamentation wh
the embellishment of the musical line with devices such as trills, mordants and grace notes.
Define Madrigal wh
a 16th c. Italian or English song for 3-8 voices with subject matter that includes love and/or nature
Prelude wh
An introductory piece leading to another such as a fugue
Tutti is to Ripieno as solo is to wh
Concertino
Define Passion wh
a musical setting of the account of the crucifixion according to 1 of the 4 evangelists Uses forms common to opera and oratorio
Accompagnato wh
recitative accompanied by the orchestra part of an opera or oratorio
Masque wh
an allegorical enntertainment including spoken verse, song and dance
Program music wh
music that draws its inspiration/expresses non musical material
Ritornello wh
a musical form with melodic units returning alternating with varied musical material
Used as part of concerto form
Fugato wh
a passage written in fugal style but not a complete fugue
Tierce de Picardie wh
raising the 3rd in the fianl tonic chord of a minor key
Opera wh
a sung play that includes text, drama, sets and costumes incorporating recitatives, arias, duets, choruses and instrumental sections
Opera seria wh
Italian serious opera similar to tragedie en musique in France
Rondo/rondeau wh
a form based on a recurring theme principal melody is alterated with other matieral in a pattern ABACA etc.
exposition AJ
exposes new material, introduces the subject (or answer) once in every voice.

double exposition: consists of the exposition of a second subject (triple exposition = 3rd subject, etc)
codetta AJ
section that concludes an interior exposition or development; sound as if they are appended after the structural close of a main section; usually last no more than 2-3 bars.
episodes AJ
sections that elaborate upon the subject by contrapuntal means (may contain sequence, stretto, canon, pedal point, modulation, augmentation, inversion, diminution, etc.)
cadenza AJ
brings the composition to a satisfactory close; halts the contrapuntual flow of the fugue.
pedal point AJ
re-establishes the tonality of the composition after it has become clouded by the numerous modulations and digressions along the way within the middle entries of the subject and answer and in the connecting episodes.
what is "stile concitato"
ATW
agitated style
French overture is used in where in as symphony
ATW
In 1,2,4 movement in the symphony, slow introduction of the symphony, slow intro for the fast 1st movement
What is Lutheran Corale
ATW
It contains german cantata (recititive, aria, and duent), french operatic overture, and dynamic strumental syle of the Italians
How is the Baroque period different "mode-wise" compared to the Renaissance period?
ATW
In the baroque period, it established major-minor tonality
What is a masque?
ATW
it is for aristocratic entertainment. It contains vocal , instrumental music, poetry and dance.
What formed tragedie lyrique?
ATW
court Baleet and classical tradegy in Framce. It is a combination of coloful symphony sumptuous dance scenes and spectacular choruses in tales of courtly love and heroic adventure.