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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
homologous chromosomes
Two chromosomes that correspond in proportion, value, and structure meaning that they contain the corresponding genes for the same traits.
the reassortment of genes or characters into different combinations from those of the parents.
• Recombination occurs for linked genes by crossing over and, for unlinked genes, by chromosome assortment.
a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic.
one specific form of a gene, differing from other alleles by one or a few bases only and occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the gene.
the whole of the genetic information of an organism.
the alleles possessed by an organism.
the characteristics of an organism.
dominant allele
an allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is present in the homozygous or heterozygous state.
recessive allele
an allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in the homozygous state.
codominant alleles
pairs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in the heterozygous state.
the particular position on homologous chromosomes of a gene.
having two identical alleles of a gene.
when you have two different alleles of a gene.
an individual that has a recessive allele of a gene that does not have an effect on their phenotype.
test cross
testing a suspected heterozygote by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive.
homo chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to seperate
gene mutation
a change in the base sequence of the DNA in genes that ultimately creates genetic diversity
base substitution
replacement of one nucleotide and its partner from the complementary DNA strand with another pair of nucleotides
sex linkage
the assosiation of a characteristic with gender because the gene is on sex chromosome
polygenic inheritance
an additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypi character
linkage group
a group of genes whose loci are on the same chromosome