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123 Cards in this Set

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What are the 7 characteristics of life?
-Organisms reproduce.
-Organisms grow and develop.
-Organisms respond to stimuli.
-Organisms use and obtain energy.
-Organisms are highly organized.
-Organisms are made of cells.
-Organisms adapt to their environment.
Name the 12 Levels of Biological Organization from smallest to largest.
Atoms
Molecules
Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organ Systems
Organisms
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biome
Biosphere
What is an Enzyme?
An Enzyme is a catalyse that reacts with a certain substrate to speed up a reaction.
What is homeostasis?
The tendency for populations to remain relativley stable.
Define Ecosystem
A community with it's abiotic environment
Define Commensalism
One organism in the relationship benefits, and the other is unaffected. (parasitism)
Define mutalistic
mutually beneficial in close biological association (as between the algae and the fungi)
What are lichens?
Crust-like structures on trees
What is a calorie?
The amount of energy required to rais the temperature of 1 gram of water to 1*C.
What is Kwashiorker?
A disease of malnourishment from too much starch, and not enough protein.
What are biocides?
Poisonous substances used to kill pests.
What is Gross Primary Productivity?
Total amount of chemical energy stored by photosynthesis.
What is Net Primary Productivity?
The remaining energy from Gross Primary Productivity, that is food for consumers.
What is the difference between Organic and Inorganic compounds?
Organic compounds contain carbon, while Inorganic compounds contain no or one carbon atom per molecule.
What is a Compound?
Matter that has more than one kind of atom.
What does NADP carry?
Hydrogen.
What is an Ion?
an atom that has a positive charge, but one less electron than protons.
What is Turgor Pressure?
The pressure exerted from the water when plant cells have inadequate supplies of water.
What are Guard Cells?
Specialized cells that surround the stomate.
What is an Endoplasmic Reticulum and what is it's function?
It is a membrane that works in the cytoplasm and it is involved in synthesis, modification, and transportation of cellular materials.
What is the Ribosome and what is it's function?
It is composed of RNA and protein, and is located in the cytoplasm. It is the site for polypeptides (protein synthesis.)
Define Active Transport.
Cell uses energy to move substances.
What are the characteristics of Prokaryotes?
-Cells do not have membrane-bounded nuclei or membrane-bounded organelles.
-Bacteria
What are the characteristics of Eukaryotes?
-Cells have membrane-bounded nucleus and membrane bounded organelles.
What are plasmids?
In prokaryotes, a circular strand of DNA that has become separate from the overall strand or chromosome.
What is the Flagella?
An organelle that is "whip like", of many bacteria, protests, and certain cells of animals such as sponges and hydras.
What are the 6 Kingdoms?
Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Monera, Archea
What are the levels of Binomial Classification?
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
What kind of organisms make up the Monera Kingdom?
Prokaryotic bacteria.
What kind of organisms make up the Fungi Kingdom?
-Eukaryotes
-Mostly aquatic and microscopic
-Autotrophs OR heterotrophs
wheredoespoopcomefrom
anus
Define introns
-not translated into proteins
-segment of the chromosomal dna that is removed before the mrna leaves the nucleus
Exons
-segments of chromosomal dna
-transcribed into mrna
-eventually translated in protein synthesis
-make up known genes
Recombinant dna
-dna from different organisms that has been pieced together
Petrified
mineralized and hardened as inparts of organisms replaced by minerals in fossils
Strata
rock layers
Radioactive
emitting nuclear radiation
Half-life
time required with half teh quantity of the radio-active quality to break down
Adaptive radiation
-evolution of a variety of adaptations and descendants of one common ancestor
-leads to their dispersal into various environments
-thus, families, genres, and species arrive from commmon ancestor
Adaptive covergence
-evolution of similar species in similar environments but from diff. ancestors
Discontinuous distributions
-populations of a species isolated from 1 another
Mitosis
duplications of living, regular cells
Cytokenesis
cell motion
-part of cell division following mitosis
what is the order of mitosis events?
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Centromere
The little circle that holds the two chromosomal strands together
-attaches to the spindle
Codon
combination of three nucleotides on mRNA
Translation
mRNA > rRNA (into polypeptide chain)
tRNA
type of rNA that carries amino acids to the ribosomes from the nucleus
rRNA
a type of rna that makes up a major part of the ribosomes
anti-codon
three transfer rna nucleotides (opposite of codon)
Binomial Nomenclature
the two word naming system to name each species
Random Genetic Drift
a change in a population's gene pool by chance
(as in the loss of an alleele b/c of no fertilizations of the gamete)
subspecies
a variety of organisms distinguished from a variety of organisms of the same species
-often a incomplete tendency towards reproductive isolation=a factor in subspecies
Cleavage
early stages of blastulation
name the three germ layers
ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
What encompases the mesoderm?
muscles, bones, circulatory system, digestive system, kidney, ducts, reproductive system, connective tissue
what encompasses the endoderm?
lining of digestive system, bladder
what encompasses the ectoderm?
skin epidermis, hair and nails, enamel of teeth
Amnion
one of one of the 4 embryonic membranes, cushions it in a fluid environemnt
name the 4 embryonic membranes
amnion, allantois, yolk sac, chorion
placenta
baby's lifeline to the mother's circulatory system
Genome
total genetic content of a cell
Haploid
(gametes) contain only one member of each chromosome
diploid
all the pairs of chromosomes
-characterists of sexually reproducing species
Epididymis
where sperm are held after they mature
oviduct
in vertebrates-a tube through which the egg passes from after they are released from an ovary
-open to an enlarged duct opening
follicle
several different structures of an ovarion sac
-hormone grows there
progesterone
a hormone which promotes the building up of the uterus tissues and maintainence of these tissues
corpus luteum
a hromone producing mass of tissue that develops in a ruptured ovarian follicle after release of an egg
vas deferns
male mammals-a duct through which sperm, protected in semen added by glands, pass from teh epidiymis into teh urethra and penis
gonad
reproductive organ in which gametes are produced (animals)
phylogenic
based on evolutionary relationships as studied in teh body from and structure of fossils and living species, or genetic evidenc eof chromosome changes, or biochemical comparisons of living descendants of different past species.
formula for photsynthesis
6CO² + 6H²0 > (light, enzymes, chlorophyll) C6H12O6 + 60²
~*FaCtS*~ @b0u+ DARK REACTIONS!!!!
-Uses ATP and NADPH from light reactions
-C5 is the greeter (lyke HELLO!)
-Produces ADP (duh) which goes to the light reactions!`
ThE aWeSoMeLy KeWl

LIGHT REACTIONS
-H²0 goes in, and 0² comes out
-Produces ATP and NADPH
How many atoms of carbon are present in a molecule of glucose, fructose, and galactose?
-Glucse = 6
-Fructose = 6
-Galactose = 5
what are the 3 chemical elements in carbohydrates?
C, H, and O
What are the 4 "building blocks" of life?
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids
Hydrogen atoms are _ times larger than oxygen atoms in are Carbs.
2
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...
what are the 4 elements in proteins?
C, H, O, and N
what is a carboxyl group
-in the upper right corner of each amino acid
-C=0
-C-O-H
what is an amino group
H-N-H
osmosis
areas from high to low concentration
Isotonic
-equal and normal
-H²0 is moving in and out
Hypertonic
More high concentration so water leaves and cell shrinks (plasmolosis)
Hypotonic
more water outside so water enters and cell bursts
What are the 3 basic parts that each nucleotide and DNA consist of?
A deoxyribose, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
how many types of amino acids are there?
How many are essential to humans?
20, (8 essential to humans)
What are the factors that differentiate each amino acid?
KONA
Kind, Order, Arrangement, Number
T or F? all enzymes are proteins
true
what are the atoms of lipids ?
C, H, O
What are the building blocks of lipids?
3 fatty acids, 1 glycerol
what's the difference between unsat. fats and sat. fats?
unsat. fats have a double bond between two carbons/sat. fats don't
What cell organelles/parts don't have a membrane?
cell wall, cytoplasm, chromosome, nucleolus, cytoskeleton, ribosome, centrioles, microtubules
What are membrane proteins/used for?
cell identification, receptor (recognizes)/binds proteins outside of cell, assists chemical reaction, transport materials
job of cell membrane (plasma membrane)
COMMUNICATE, ISOLATE, REGULATE!!!

-control what enters/leaves
-seperate cell from its surroundings
-protection of the cell
-support of the cell
-communication
what is the cell membrane composed of?
proteins and phosphylipids
What is another name for the cell membrane?
phospholipid bilayer
a chloroplast has _ membranes
2
passive transport
no added energy is used to move molecules or particules across the cell membrane (diffusion, osmosis, facilitated, diffusion)
facilitated diffusion
a CARRIER molecule helps the particle across the cell membrane with no added energy "piggy back"
differ between pinocytosis and phagocytosis
pinocytosis=liquid
phagocytosis=solid
what atoms make up nucleic acids?
c, h, o, n, p
chromatin
chromosomes in little tiny pieces (like shattered glass)
at what phase during mitosis are chromosomes chromatin?
interphase
Telomeres
the physical ends of chromosomes (like plastic caps on shoe laces)
-stabilize chromosomes
-protect chromosome structure
zygote= diploid or haploid?
haploid
put these in order: zygote, morula, fertilization, fetus, four cell stage, childbirth, blastocyst, two-cell stage
fertilization, zygote, two cell stage, four cell stage, morula, blastocyst, fetus, childbirth
Meiosis
-forms gametes
-2 divisions
-crossing over
(reduction)
-sex cells; ovaries-ovum, testes-sperm
How many atoms of carbon are present in a molecule of glucose, fructose, and galactose?
-Glucse = 6
-Fructose = 6
-Galactose = 5
what are the 3 chemical elements in carbohydrates?
C, H, and O
What are the 4 "building blocks" of life?
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids
Hydrogen atoms are _ times larger than oxygen atoms in are Carbs.
2
what are the 4 elements in proteins?
C, H, O, and N
what is a carboxyl group
-in the upper right corner of each amino acid
-C=0
-C-O-H
what is an amino group
H-N-H
osmosis
areas from high to low concentration
Isotonic
-equal and normal
-H²0 is moving in and out
Hypertonic
More high concentration so water leaves and cell shrings (plasmolosis)
Hypotonic
more water outside so water enters and cell bursts
What are the 3 basic parts that each nucleotide and DNA consist of?
A deoxyribose, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
how many types of amino acids are there?
20, (8 essential to humans)