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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The four unique qualities of muscles
Excitability
Contractility
Elasticity
Extensibility
Excitability
Responsiveness to stimulation
Contractility
fiber shortening pulls on bones and/or moves specific body parts
Elasticity
the muscle's ability to return to its original length
Exstensibility
capability of extending in length in response to the contraction of opposing muscle fibers
Smooth muscle
Spindle shaped up to 60mm long
Single nucleus centerally located
Nonstriated
Involuntary
Where smooth muscle is located
Walls of blood vessels, gastrointestinal, lower Carrespiratory tract, lower esophagus, glands, glandular tissue lining
Cardiac muscle
Main cylinder and collateral branches
Fibers appear striated
Normally a single nucleus centerally located
Function of intercalated discs of cardiac muscle
Gap junctions for electrical continuity between adjacent cells
If involuntary then controlled by...
Autonomic nervous system
Skeletal muscle
Elongated cylinders up to 30cm long
Most common
Appear striated
Muliple nuclei lie peripherally just deep to cell membrane
Voluntary
Voluntary muscles are controlled by...
cerebral cortex
Epimysium
Dense irregular connective tissue fascia that envelopes entire muscle belly
Perimysium
Connective tissue septa that divides belly into compartments containing fiber bundles called fasicles
endomysium
Fine connective tissue extensions of perimysium that envelope individual fibers
Muscle fiber
Muscle cell
Sarcolemma
Cell membrane of muscle fibers
T-tubules
transverse tubules continuous with sarcolemma passing around microfibrils
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Specialized ER, Ca+ storage
Terminal cisternae
Enlarged ends of SR
Triad
Paired terminal cisternae and t-tubule
Sarcomere
Segments of myofibrils
Bordered by adjacent z-discs
THE basic unit of muscle contraction
Components of Sarcomere
Z disc, Titan, I band, A band, H zone, M line
Z disc
Dense structural protein discs
Titan
Single protein; links Z disc to thick filaments
I band
Light band; area either side of z-line composed of only thin filaments
A band
Dark band; both thick and thin filaments
H zone
Contains only thick filaments
M line
Fine line marking center of sacromere
Actin
Thin filamen, anchored to Z disc, composed of individual G-actin proteins arranged as an alpha helix
Tropomyosin
Protein strands lying in groove between actin filaments
Serve as regulatory protein by "blocking" binding sites on actin from myosin
Torponin
Interspersed along trompomyosin strands; regulatory protein
Three subunits that bind to troponyosin, to G-actin to calcium
Myofilaments are composed of
Actin, Tropomysoin, Troponin
Myosin
Two components: Shaft (tail)
Head (Crossbridge)