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34 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 regions of the hypothalamus from medial to lateral? What are the 4 regions from anterior to posterior?
periventricular zone, medial zone, lateral zone

preoptic, supraoptic (anterior), tuberal, mammillary
What is the primary function of the periventricular zone?
Maintains homeostatsis of the autonomic system - sensory and visceral motor via neurons that secrete hormones.
What is the primary function of the medial zone?

To what two basic (outside) areas do its nuclei connect?

To what other hypothalamic areas does it connect?
Regulation of motivated behaviors via large nuclei in this zone.

Limbic and brainstem areas

Nuclei connect with each other and project to nuclei in the periventricular zone.
What is the function of the lateral zone in the hypothalamus?

What bundle goes through this region?
An undifferentiated region that is involved in mediating arousal and sensory sensitization associcated with motivated behavior relating to reproduction.

Medial forebrain bundle
What are the four main afferents of the hypothalamus?
Fornix

Medial Forebrain Bundle

Amygdalo-hypothalamic fibers

Retinohypothalamic fibers
What are four other sensory types of input to the hypothalamus?
thermoreceptors

barroreceptors

osmoreceptors

steroid hormone receptors
The fornix is arises from neurons in these two areas:
subiculum and hippocampus
List the two sets of hypothalamus afferents that come from the hippocampus.

What parts of the hypothalamus do each of these afferents connect?
precommissural and postcommissural

precommissural => septum, preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus

postcommissural => mammillary N. and lateral hypothalamus
Describe the medial forbrain bundle and where it tranverses through the hypothalamus.

It contains ascending and descending fibers that connect to what three areas in the brain?
A diffuse band of fibers thar courses through the lateral hypothalamus zone.

Fibers connect to septum, hypothalamus and midbrain tegmentum.
What are the retinohypothalamic fibers?
Direct projection from retina to SCN or as collaterals of the retinogeniculate fibers
What are the three major ascending efferents of the hypothalamus?
Mammilothalamic

Hypothalamo-thalamic

Hypothalamo-amygdaloid
List the four main descending efferents from the hypothalamus.
Hypothalamo-spinal

Hypothalamo-medullary

Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus (PVN to central gray)

Mammillotegmental
List the pathway for the mammillothalamic efferent.
medial mammillary nuclei to anterior n. of the thalamus (part of the Papez circuit)
List the pathway of the hypothalamo-thalamic efferent
From lateral preoptic area to dorsomedial N. of thalamus
List the pathway of the hypothalamo-amygdaloid efferent
Reciprocal connections of amygdalohypothalamic fibers to dorsomedial amydgala
List the pathway for the hypothalamo-spinal efferent
Primarily from paraventricular N. of the hypothalamus (some fibers from the dorsomeidal and lateral hypothalamus). Terminate on neurons in the intermediolateral cell column (visceral efferents)
List the pathway of the hypothalamo-meduallary efferent
orginal from PVN, DMV and LH. Terminate in solitary nucleus, dorsal vagal motor n., n. ambiguus and nuceli of ventrolateral medualla (parasympthetic)
List the pathway of the dorsal longitudinal fascisculus efferent
from medial hypothalamic zones to PAG, reticular formation and dorsal vagal n. (preganglionic sympathetic and sacral parasympathetic)
List the pathway of the mammillotegmental efferent
Arises from medial mammillary nucleus. To dorsal and ventral tegmental nuclei in PAG, reticular formation, relay to autonomic nuclei in brainstem and spinal cord
What are the names of the two neuroendocrine connections to the pituitary gland?
tuberoinfundibular

hypothalamo-hypophysial
Where do the tuberioinfundibular connections end? What do these terminals do in general terms?
median eminence.

These terminals secrete releasing or inhibiting factors into the hypophyseal portal vasculature which travel to the anterior pituitary to regulate hormone secretion.
What neurons are involved in the hypothalamo-hypophysial connections?

Where do these neurons project and what do they do?
magnocellular neurons of the PVN and SON.

Axons travel directly to the posterior gland and release their hormone in general circulation.
The anterior pituitary gland develops from what area?
Develops as an outpocketing of the roof of the oral cavity known as Rathke's pouch.
What are the five cell types of the anterior pituitary and what are the associated pituitary hormones?
gondadotropes: Luteinizing H., Follicle Stimulating H.

lactotropes: Prolactin

thyrotopes: Thyroid Stimulating H.

corticotropes: AdrenoCoritcoTrophic H.

somatotropes: Growth H.
What two hormones are released by the posterior pituitary gland?
vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OX)
Where are the three primary locations of the cell bodies for GnRH?

Where are the primary terminals for the GnRH?
Diagonal Band of Broca, OVLT, MPN (medial preoptic)

median eminence
Where the the primary locations for the CRH cell bodies and terminals?
PVN and median eminence
Where are the primary locations for the cell bodys of the TRH and where are the terminals?
Periventricular area, PVN

Meidan Eminence
Where the the primary locations for the CRH cell bodies and terminals?
PVN and median eminence
Where are the cell bodies and termainsl for GHRH?
arcuate N.

Median eminence
Where is the primary location for cell bodies releasing somatostatin? Where are the terminals?
PVN

median eminence; neurohypophysis/meidan emience
Where are the cell bodies and terminals releasing Arginine Vasopressin?
SON, PVN

nuerohypohysis, median emience
Where are the cell bodies releasing oxytocin?
PVN, SON
What are the six required characteristics of a hypothalamic releasing or inhibiting hormone?
1) Activity must be extractable from the while hypothalamus or median eminence

2) Concentration in portal blood must be greater than in the systemic ciruclation

3) Dynamics of secretion in portal blood must correlate with the dynamics of adenhypophysial hormone secretion

4) Extractered materail must be active in vivo and in vitro

5) Inhibitors of neurohormone must affect physiological endpoitns.

6) Target cells should have specific receptors for neurohormones.