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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
in general the hypothalamus has what types of functions?
limbic, autonomic/endocrine (involves motor response), and homeostatic
what arteries supply blood to the hypothal?
anteromedial and posteromedial central arteries.
what divides the hypothal into medial and lateral zones?
the fornix
what are the three regions of the hypothal medial zone and their associated nuclei?
supraoptic (anterior) region: supraoptic nu, paraventricular nu, anterior nu, and suprachiasmatic nu. Tuberal (infundibular) region: dorsomedial nu, ventromedial, and arcuate. Mammillary (posterior) region: mammillary and posterior. the periventricular nu (surrounds the 3rd ventrical) is also part of the medial zone
function of supraoptic nu?
regulates vasopressin (ADH)thus salt/water balance and oxytocin thus smooth muscle contraction
function of the paraventricular nu?
CRH, vassopressin and oxytocin thus salt/water balance and stress response (HPA axis)
function of anterior nu?
thermoreceptors, body heat dissipation, parasympathetic responses
function of suprachiasmatic nu?
regulates circadian rhthyms, projects to the dorsomedial nu and intermediolateral nu
function of dosromedial nu?
sham rage, receives projections from SCN, integrative center for circadian rhythms
function of ventromedial nu?
glucoreceptors, satiety center-inhibition of hunger and feeding center
function of arcuate nu?
prolactin releasing factor, dopamine and other releasing factors. NPY/AgRP-&aMSH/CART containing neurons project to the PVN and play a role in appetite and energy balance.
function of mammillary body?
histamine neurons, receives axons terminals of fornix to form part of papez circuit and projects to ant thalamic nu. these nu degenerate in korsakoff's syndrome due to thiamine deficiency producing anterograde amnesia
function of posterior nu?
heat production and conservation, sympathetic responses
function of lateral zone?
melanin-concentrating hormone and orexin neurons, tonically active hunger/feeding center, and plays a role in wakefulness
what plays a role in narcolepsy?
orexin deficiency or orexin receptor gene mutation
what intrinsic receptors are located in the hypothal?
thermoreceptors (preoptic area and anterior nu), glucoreceptors (VM and lateral) and osmoreceptors (posterior and OVLT)
what types of afferents go to the hypothal?
GSA(temp receptors and reotogenic zones), GVA, and SVA (taste)
what is the path of retinal input to the hypothal and what is its function?
function is for circadian rhythm. retina to the SCN to the PVN to the intermediolateral nu to the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and the pineal gland (secretes melatonin and regulates secretion of gonadotropins and reproduction in lotsa verts). Projections also go from the SCN to the DM nu (integrative center for lotsa stuff including circadian rhythms).
what effect does the ventral lateral preoptic area have on the hypothal?
gives GABAergic neurons to the hypothal thus inhibiting histaminergic neurons. Also inhibits NE and serotonic neurons in the brainstem, playing a role i n induction of slow-wave sleep.
what structures mediate cerebral cortical and limbic system influence on the hypothal via papez circuit and other connections?
DM thalamic nu (mediates influence of prefrontal cortex), medial forebrain bundle (mediates orbital frontal cortex and the septal nu), fornix (mediates influence from hippocampal complex), stria medularis and ventral amygdalofugal bundle (mediates influence of the amygdala for effects of fear, anxiety and aggression).
the hyppothalamohypopophyseal tract is mainly involved with what?
releasing vasopressin (ADH) to the neurohypophysis in response to the angiotensin renin system as well as oxytocin release to the neurohypophysis for contraction of breast duct and uterine wall smooth muscle.
what is the role of the hypophyseal portal system?
polypeptide releasing or inhibiting factors enter the system in the median eminence and are carried to the adenohypohysis where they regulate the release of FSH, LH, prolactin, TSH, ACTH, and growth hormone.
what are the nuclei involved in the hypophyseal portal system?
medial preoptic area, PVN, arcuate and periventricular
the size of pituitary adenomas may cause structural damage causing what symptoms?
bitemporal hemianopsia, other visual defects, headache
what are the functional effects of pituitary adenomas from most common to rare?
prolactin secreting, growth hormone secreting, ACTH secreting, TSH secreting (rare), FSH/LH secreting (rare)
what pathways does the hypothalamus utilize to influence behavior?
mammillothalamic tract and thalamic projections to the cingulate and prefrontal cortex. via the medial forebrain bundle to the orbital frontal cortex and the septal area, and via connections with the amygdala
what tracts does the hypothalamus use to provide efferents to the brainstem RF?
the medial forebrain bundle, dorsal longitudinal fasciculus, mammillotegmental fasciculus.
what are the effects of the anterior hypothalamus on the autonomic nervous system? posterior hypothal?
anterior is a parasympathetic response while posterior is a sympathetic response.