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56 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 zones of the hypothalamus (medial to lateral)?
1. Periventricular zone

2. Medial zone

3. Lateral zone
What are the four regions of the hypothalamus: anterior to posterior
1. preoptic

2. supraoptic (anterior)

3. tuberal

4. mammillary
What is the primary function of neurons in the periventricular zone?
Most neurons responsible for regulating hormone secretion reside in the periventricular zone = "motor neurons of the neuroendocrine system."
What is the primary function of nuclei in the medial zone?
Large nuclei of the medial zone are primarily responsible for regulating motivated behaviors.
Where are medial zone nucleii connected?
1. Connect extensively to limbic and brainstem regions.

2. Also connect with each other and project to periventricular zone nuclei.
What is the primary function of the lateral zone of the hypothalamus?
An undifferentiated region that is involved in mediating arousal and sensory sensitization associated with motivated behavior.

It may also modulate spinal pathways.
What transverses through the lateral zone?
Medial forebrain bundle.
Full name for AVPV
Anteroventral periventricular nucleii
Full name for MPN/ SDN-POA
Medial Preoptic nucleii
Full name for MnPO
Median Preoptic nucleii
Full name for SCN?
Suprachiasmatic nucleii (SCN)
Full name for SON
Supraoptic nucleus
Full name for PVN
Paraventricular nucleus
Full name for DMN
Dorsomedial nucleus
Full name for VMN
Ventromedial nucleus
Full name for Arc.
Arcuate nucleus
Full name for LHA
Lateral hypothalamic area
What are four other types of sensory input to the hypothalamus?
1. thermoreceptors

2. barroreceptors

3. Osmoreceptors

4. Steroid hormone receptors
What is the largest single input to the hypothalamus?
fornix
The fornix is comprised of neurons from where?
neurons in the subiculum and hippocampus.
What is the primary source of the precommissural afferents to the hypothalimus?
These are largely hippocampal.
The precommissural afferents pass to what area(s) of the hypothalimus?
Septum, preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus.
To what area in the hypothalamus due the postcommissural afferents pass?
mammillary nucleus

lateral hypothalamus
What is the name of the diffuse bnad of fibers that courses through the lateral hypothalamic zone?
Medial forebrain bundle
What is contained within the medial forebrain bundle?
ascending and descending fibers that connect the septum, hypothalamus and midbrain tegmentum.
What are the two amygdalo-hypothalamic fibers?
strai terminalis

ventral amygdalofugal
What is the path for the stria terminalis?
orginates from the corticomedial portion of the amygdala and terminates in the septal nuclei, preoptic area and medial hypothalamic zone. It takes a path similar to that of the fornix.
Describe the origin and destination of the ventral amygdalofugal pathway
originates from the basolateral amygdala and passes to the lateral hypothalamic area and septal and preoptic nuclei.
describe the path(s) associated with the retinohypothalamic fibers
direct projection from retina to SCN or as collaterals of the retinogeniculate fibers
What are the major assending (to forebrain) efferents of the hypothalamus?
Mammillothalamic

Hypothalamo-thalamic

hypothalamo-amygdaloid
Describe the pathway for the mammillothalamic efferent
medial mammillary nuclei to anterior nucleus of the thalamus (part of Papez circuit)
Describe the pathway of the hypothalamo-thalamic
from lateral preoptic area to dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus
Describe the pathway of the hypothalamo-amygdaloid efferent
reciprocal connections of amygdalohypothalamic fibers...To dorsomedial amydgala.
To what general areas do the major descending hypothalamus efferents go?
brainstem and spinal cord
Do what general areas do the ascending efferents of the hypothalamus go?
forebrain structures.
What are the four major desecnding efferents of the hypothalamus?
1. hypothalamo-spinal

2. hypothalamo-medullary

3. dorsal longitudinal fasciculus

4. mammillotegmental
Describe the pathway of the hypothalamo-spinal efferents?
primarily from paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (some fibers from the dorsomedial and lateral hypothalamus). Terminate on neurons in the intermediolateral cell column (visceral efferents)
Describe the pathway for the hypothalamo-medullary efferents.
originate from PVN, DMN and LH. Termiante in solitary nucleus, dorsal vagal motor nucleus, nucleus ambiguus and other nuclei of ventrolateral medulla (parasympathetic)
Describe the pathway of the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus efferents.
from meidal hypothalamic zones to PAG, reticular formation and dorsal vagal nucleus (preganglionic sympathetic and sacral parasympathetic)
Describe the pathway of the mammillotegmental efferents
arises from medial mammillary nucleus. To dorsal and ventral tegmental nuclei in PAG, reticular formation, relay to autonomic nuclei in brainstem and spinal cord.
What are the two primary neuroendocrine connections to the pituitary gland?
1. tuberoinfundibular connections at median eminence.

2. hypothalamo-hypophysial connections (magnocellular neurons of the PVN and SON).
Describe the pathway and function of the tuberoinfundibular connections.
These terminals secrete releasing or inhibiting factors into the hypphyseal portal vasculature which travel to the anterior pituitary to regulate hormone secretion.
Describe the pathway and function of the hypothalamo-hypophysial connections
Axons travel directly to the posterior pituitary gland and release their hormone to the general circulation.
What are the three parts of the pituitary gland?
1. Anterior pituitary gland

2. Posterior pituitary gland

3. Intermediate lobe
Where does the anterior pituitary gland develop an outpocket and what is the name of this pocket?
in the roof of the oral cavity known as Rathke's pouch.
What are the cell types of the anterior pituitary (adenhypophysis) adn pituitary hormones?
1. gonadotropes: Luterinizing Hormone/Follicle Stimulating Hormone (LH/FSH)

2. lactotropes: PRoLactin (PRL)

3. thyrotopes: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

4. corticotropes: AdrenoCorticoTrophic Hormone (ACTH)

5. somatotropes: Growth Hormone (GH)
What are the hormes of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis)?
Vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OX)
What is the hormone os the intermediate lobe?
melanotropes: Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
Name the 9 hormones released by the hypothalamus
1. gondadotropin releasing hormone (GmRH; LHRH)

2. Cortico RH (CRH)

3. throtropin RH (TRH): pGlu-His-Pro3-NH2

4. Growth releasing hormone (GHRH)

5. Somatostatin

6. Tuberoinfundibular Dopamine (TDA)

7. Arginine Vasopressin (AVP)

8. Oxytocin
Name the primary cell body locations and terminal locations for the GnRH and LHRH
cell bodies: n. diagonal Band of Broca, OVLT, MPN

terminals: median eminence
Name the location of the main CRH cell bodies and terminals
cell bodies: PVN

terminals: median eminence
Name the main location of TRH cell bodies and terminals
cell bodies: Periventricular area, PVN

terminals: median eminence
Name the primary cell body and terminal locations for the GHRH
cell bodies: arcuate n.

terminals: median eminence
Name the main cell body and terminal locations for AVP
cell bodies: SON, PVN

terminals: neurohypophysis, median eminence
Name the primary location of the cell bodies for oxytocin
PVN, SON
What are the 6 required characteristics of a hypothalamic releasing or inhibiting hormone?
1. Activity must be extractable from the while hypothalamus or median eminence.

2. Concentration in portal blood must be greater than in the systemic circulation.

3. Dyanmics of secretion in portal blood must correlate with the dynamics of adenohypophsial hormone secretion.

4. Extracted material must be active in vivo and in vitro

5. Inhibitors of neurohormone must affect physiological endpoints

6. Target cells should have specific receptors for neurohormones.