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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The hypothalamus is a component of what structure?
What does the hypothalamus regulate?
homeostatsis of autonomic function - visceromotor and endocrine systems.

homeostatsis of motivated behaviors

reproductive hormone secretion and behaviors
From a top view, what are the four regions of the hypothalamus from rostral to caudal?



From the side view, what are the three areas of the hypothalamus?
Lateral, medial, periventricular
What are the 9 things that the hypothalamus integrates?
light, olfactory, arousal, cognitive

fear/emotion, thermal, osmotic, pressure

In general terms, what is contained within the periventricular zone?
The neurons responsible for regulating hormone secretion.
What are 6 examples of nucleii contained within the periventricular zone?
anteroventral periventricular N.

periventricular preoptic N.

Peri and paraventricular hypothalamic N.

Acruate N.

Supraoptic N.

Suprachiasmatic N.
What is the major function of the large nuclei in the medial zone?
Large nucleii that are reponsible for regulating motivated behaviors.
What are the four major connections within the medial zone?
Connects with limbic and brainstem nuclei.

Connects with other medial zone nuclei, and with periventricular nuclei
What are 4 examples of nuclei within the medial zone?
Medial preoptic N.

Anterior hypothalamic N.

Dorsomedial N.

Ventromedial N.
What is the primary function of the lateral zone?
An undifferentiated region involved in arousal and sensitization to sensory inputs associated with motivated behaviors, e.g. sexual behaviors.
What is traversed through the lateral zone and projects to the medial zone?
medial forebrain bundle
Give two examples of nuclei in the lateral zone.
lateral preoptic area

lateral hypothalamic area
What are three major afferent connections into the hypothalamus?
nucleus of the solitary tract


What is the origin of fornix?
What information is contained within the solitary tract (afferent connection)? What cranial nerves are used? Where does it project?
Visceral sensory information (cadiovascular, respiratory, visceral)

By way of CN X and XI

Bidirectional projections to PVN and LHA
To what major areas of the hypothalamus does the ventral amygdalo-fugal project?
preoptic, supraoptic, tuberal
What are six other inputs to the hypothalamus. For two of them, projections are given - name them.
Retinal (retinohypothalamic fibers) to SCN

temperature sensitive neurons in POA and AHA


barroreceptor containing neurons

steroid hormone receptor containing neurons

leptin receptor containing neurons
What are the major, general category ascending efferents (2), descending (2), to pituitary(1)
ascending to the thalamus and amygdala

descending (autonomic). Visceral efferents to the spinal cord and brainstem.

neuroendocrine connections to the pituitary
Give the basic components of the neuroendocrine connections in the tuberoinfundibular.
neuroendocrine neurons in hypoth.

medial eminence

hypophyseal portal vasculature

anterior pituitary
Give the major components in the hypothalamo-hypophysial path
neuroendocrine neurons

posterior gland in the pituitary

General circulation
What two structures come together to form the hypothalamus?
floor of the diencephalon which becomes the neurohypoptysis

roof of mouth which forms Rathke's pouch during development which becomes the adenohypophysis
What two hormones are released directly into the blood stream by neuroendocrine cells going from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary?
vasopressin and oxytocin
What hormones are released by the hypothalamus to the median emience => release of hormones by the pituitary?
Gondadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)

Thyrotropin RH (GHRH)


What hormones are released by the hypothalamus to the median emience => release of hormones by the pituitary?
Gondadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)

Thyrotropin RH (GHRH)


What are the cell types of the anterior pituitary and what hormones do they secrete?
GnRH: Gondaotrophs: Luteinizing H/Follicle-Stimulating H

CRH: Corticotrophs: AdrenoCorticotrophic H

GHRH: Sommatotrophs: Growth H

DA: Mammotrophs (Lactotrophs): ProLactin

TRH: Thyrotrophs: Thyroid Stimulating H.
What are the six characteristics of a hypothalamic releasing or inhibiting hormone?
Activity must be extractable from teh hypothalamus or median eminence.

Concentrations in portal blood must be greater than in the systemic circulation.

Dyanmics of secretion in portal blood must correlate with dynamics of secretion by pituitary

extracted material must be active in vivo and in vitro

inhibitors of neurohormones must affect physiological endpoints.

target cells must have specific recepors for neurohormones.