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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
def of htn
persistently elevated arterial BP. there is primary and secondary.
state the relationship btwn arterial BP, CO, and TPR
CO is determined by SV, HR, and venous capacitance
TPR = regulated by dilation or contraction of arterioles
defects in the CNS
1. stimulation of specific areas in CNS either inc or decr BP. vasomotor center is located in the medulla.
2. stimulation of central a2 adrenergic receptors decr BP bu inhibiting the vasomotor center (ex. clonidine and methyldopa)
3. incr levels of angiotensin II incr sympathetic outflow from the vasomotor center resulting in incr. BP
stimulation of the post synaptic a1 receptors on arterioles and venules results in
stimulation of post synaptic b2 receptors on arterioles and venules results in
stimulation of post synaptic b1 receptors in the heart results in
increased heart rate and increased contractility
stimulation of pre-synaptic a2 receptors inhibits
norepinephrine release from the nerve terminus
stimulation of pre-synaptic Breceptors results in
further release of norepi from the nerve terminus
major negative feedback mechanism controlling sympathetic nervous system
baroreceptor reflex system
where are baroreceptors found?
they are nerve endings w/in the wall of large AA such as the carotid AA and the aortic arch
acute increase in arterial BP that is detected by the baroreceptors
this increase sends a signal to the vasomotor center of the brainstem to decr. sympathetic outflow.
The result is vasodilation of arterioles and venules, decr HR, and decr. cardiac contractility
an acute decrease in arterial pressure ultimatly results in
arteriolar and venous vasoconstriction in addition to an increase in HR and cardiac contractility
baroreceptor reflexes in the elderly
may be blunted
defect in the autoregulatory system causes
an increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to local tissues would set off the local tissue vasoconstriction.
sustained vasoconstriction in arteriolar beds would lead to sustained increase in TPR
plays in an important role in regulating Na, K, fluid balance, sympathetic nervous system and vascular tone. defects in the system may result in the development of HTN
renin is synthesized and stored where?
in the juxtaglomerular cells located in the media of the renal afferent arterioles (taking blood to the glomerulus)
juxtaglomerular apparatus is composed of
juxtaglomerular cells and specialized distal tubule cells called the macula dense.
renin release from the juxtaglomerular cells is stimulated by the following:
1. decr. renal perfusion pressure
2. decr. in the amt of Na and Cl delivered to the distal tubule of the nephron (detected by the macula densa)
3. direct stimulation of the juxtaglomerular appartus by catecgikanubes
4. decr circulating levels of angiotensin II
renin catalyzes the conversion
of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I which is then converted to angiotensin II by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)