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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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All of the following drug interactions with antihypertensive drugs can occur EXCEPT:

A. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce the antihypertensive effectiveness of diuretics.

B. Hypokalemia induced by thiazide diuretics can increase the toxicity of digitoxin.

C. Diuretics can raise lithium blood levels in patients taking lithium.

D. Vitamin D can increase the vasodilation produced by calcium channel antagonists.
The correct answer is D.

Vitamin D does not increase the vasodilation produced by calcium channel blockers.
This drug tends to increase plasma lipids.

A. Prazosin (Minipress)

B. Verapamil (Calan)

C. Captopril (Capoten)

D. Metoprolol (Lopressor)
The correct answer is D.

Clinicians have recently found that both thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers (such as metoprolol, selective for beta-1 receptors in the heart) actually increase plasma triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins. Vasodilators, alpha-antagonists, ACE inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers produce no change or actually decrease plasma lipids.
All of the following antihypertensive drug combinations are rational EXCEPT:

A. Enalapril (Vasotec) - Triamterene (Dyrenium)

B. Propranolol (Inderal) - Hydralazine (Apresoline) - Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril)

C. Prazosin (Minipress) - Triamterene (Dyrenium)

D. Verapamil (Calan) - Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril)
The correct answer is A.

Combining enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) and a potassium-sparing diuretic such as triamterene may result in hyperkalemia. Since enalapril decreases aldosterone, lowering the component of K+ secretion coupled to Na+ reasbsorption, hyperkalemia may result when it is used in conjunction with triamterene
All of the following older antihypertensive drugs are generally considered obsolete EXCEPT:

A. Mecamylamine (Inversine), a ganglionic blocker

B. Hydralazine (Apresoline)

C. Reserpine (Serpasil)

D. Guanethidine (Ismelin)
The correct answer is B.

Hydralazine is used frequently in combination therapy, particularly in severe hypertension
This drug routinely produces some tachycardia.
A. Labetalol (Trandate)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Enalapril (Vasotec)
D. Nifedipine (Procardia)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is D.

Nifedipine relieves hypertension through vasodilatation of arterial resistance vessels. However, because the dihydropyridines have very weak effects on the SA node and AV junction, this drop in blood pressure causes a reflex increase in sympathetic tone, resulting in tachycardia.
This drug is converted to an active metabolite after absorption.
A. Labetalol (Trandate)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Enalapril (Vasotec)
D. Nifedipine (Procardia)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is C.

Enalapril is a pro-drug that is converted by deesterification to a converting enzyme inhibitor, enalaprilat. This metabolite then inhibits the converting enzyme peptidyl dipeptidase, which hydrolyzes angiotensin I to angiotensin II, and inactivates bradykinin, a potent vasodilator.
This drug reduces blood pressure by actions on cardiovascular control centers in the CNS.
A. Labetalol (Trandate)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Enalapril (Vasotec)
D. Nifedipine (Procardia)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is B.

Clonidine acts as a potent agonist at central alpha-2 receptors that are located in cardiovascular regulatory centers in the brain stem and spinal cord. It reduces blood pressure and heart rate through decreased sympathetic outflow from the CNS
This drug is contraindicated in patients with bronchial asthma.
A. Labetalol (Trandate)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Enalapril (Vasotec)
D. Nifedipine (Procardia)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is A.

In patients with bronchial asthma, sympathetic activity to the bronchioles is necessary to maintain proper function. Drugs with beta-blocking properties are thus contraindicated.
This drug blocks alpha-2 adrenergic receptors.
A. Labetalol (Trandate)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Enalapril (Vasotec)
D. Nifedipine (Procardia)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is E.

Of the four drugs listed as possible answers, only clonidine acts on alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. However, clonidine is an agonist, not an antagonist, of alpha-2 receptors.
This drug blocks alpha-1 adrenergic receptors.
A. Labetalol (Trandate)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Enalapril (Vasotec)
D. Nifedipine (Procardia)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is A.

Labetalol is a racemic mixture of four isomeric compounds with a 3:1 ratio of beta:alpha-1 antagonism.
This drug is available in a once-a-week dosage form.
A. Labetalol (Trandate)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Enalapril (Vasotec)
D. Nifedipine (Procardia)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is B.

A transdermal preparation of clonidine that reduces blood pressure for 7 days after a single application is available.
This drug can produce potentially fatal angioneurotic edema.
A. Labetalol (Trandate)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Enalapril (Vasotec)
D. Nifedipine (Procardia)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is C.

Among the side affects of ACE inhibitors, angioneurotic edema is most dangerous and occurs with an incidence of 0.2%.
This drug is a directly acting vasodilator.
A. Labetalol (Trandate)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Enalapril (Vasotec)
D. Nifedipine (Procardia)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is D.

Nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, dilates peripheral arterioles and lowers blood pressure by inhibiting calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle.
This drug can produce a lupus erythematosis syndrome.
A. Labetalol (Trandate)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Enalapril (Vasotec)
D. Nifedipine (Procardia)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is E.

Of the antihypertensive drugs, only hydralazine (a vasodilator drug) can produce a reversible lupus erythematosis.
Antihypertensive drug of choice in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF).
A. Labetalol (Trandate)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Enalapril (Vasotec)
D. Nifedipine (Procardia)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is C.

Enalapril, an ACE inhibitor, is safe for use in hypertensive patients with coexisting CHF. Patients threatened with CHF are poor candidates for therapy with drugs that depress sympathetic activity to the heart.
All of the following drug combinations for the treatment of hypertension are rational EXCEPT:
A. Triamterene (Dyrenium) - Nadolol (Corgard)
B. Prazosin (Minipress) - Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril)
C. Clonidine (Catapres) - Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril)
D. Triamterene (Dyrenium) - Enalapril (Vasotec
The correct answer is D.

Combining enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) and a potassium-sparing diuretic such as triamterine may result in hyperkalemia. Since enalapril decreases aldosterone, lowering the component of K+ secretion coupled to Na+ reasbsorption, hyperkalemia may result when it is used in conjunction with triamterene
All of the following statements concerning drug treatment of hypertension are true EXCEPT:
A. Patient compliance is best on once-a-day dosage.
B. Most patients feel better when taking their antihypertensive drugs than when they do not.
C. Withdrawing or changing drugs should be done gradually.
D. Periodic evaluation of patients is essential for successful therapy.
The correct answer is B.

Since hypertension is a symptomless condition, in order to maximize patient compliance, it is essential to educate patients about the importance of their therapy toward maintaining good health and increasing their life expectancy.
All of the following statements concerning clonidine (Catapres) are true EXCEPT:
A. It acts by stimulating alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in cardiovascular centers in the CNS.
B. It lowers blood pressure and heart rate.
C. It produces a high incidence of sedation.
D. It produces a high incidence of orthostatic hypotension.
The correct answer is D.

Clonidine does not produce orthostatic hypotension because it does not block cardiovascular reflexes.
All of the following statements concerning minoxidil (Loniten) are true EXCEPT:
A. It produces direct vasodilation of arteriolar smooth muscle.
B. High doses can produce lupus erythematosis in some patients.
C. It is usually administered in combination with a beta-adrenergic antagonist.
D. Systemic or topical administration stimulates hair growth.
The correct answer is B.

Hydralazine, but not minoxidil, can produce a reversible lupus erythematosis syndrome.
All of the following statements concerning the treatment of elderly patients with antihypertensive drugs are true EXCEPT:
A. They are more likely than younger patients to be taking other drugs.
B. They are especially susceptible to orthostatic hypotension.
C. Higher doses are generally required to reduce blood pressure to desired levels.
D. They are more often affected by drugs with CNS side effects
The correct answer is C.

In treating elderly hypertensive patients, smaller doses and slower increments in elevating dosage should be used.
All of the following statements concerning antihypertensive drugs are correct EXCEPT:
A. In general, the newer drugs produce a lower incidence of side effects than the older drugs.
B. In general, withdrawal from these drugs should be gradual rather than abrupt.
C. In general, the effectiveness and patient's acceptance of antihypertensive drugs is highly predictable.
D. In general, it is irrational to prescribe two drugs with the same mechanism of action.
The correct answer is C.

The effectiveness of antihypertensives, as well as patient compliance, is highly variable, and periodic dosage and drug adjustments are often necessary to reduce blood pressure and improve compliance in the individual patient.
Therapy of essential (primary) hypertension can justifiably be initiated with any of the following drugs EXCEPT:
A. Metoprolol (Lopressor)
B. Guanethidine (Ismelin)
C. Lisinopril (Zestril)
D. Diltiazem (Cardizem)
The correct answer is B.

Guanethidine is a highly effective antihypertensive drug, but it is generally reserved for treating more advanced hypertension because it produces a high incidence of disagreeable side effects: orthostatic hypotension, impotence, and diarrhea.
All of the following statements concerning the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are true EXCEPT:
A. They act by inhibiting the ability of renin to convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
B. Enalapril (Vasotec) is a prodrug that is converted to an active metabolite.
C. They reduce secretion of aldosterone.
D. They can produce hyperkalemia in combination with a potassium-sparing diuretic
The correct answer is A.

ACE inhibitors act by blocking the angiotensin converting enzyme (Peptidyl Dipeptidase [PDP], Kininase II) which hydrolyzes angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Renin is an aspartyl protease that specifically catalyzes the hydrolytic release of angiotensin I from angiotensinogen.
All of the following statements concerning individual antihypertensive drugs are true EXCEPT:
A. Minoxidil (Loniten) should usually be administered in combination with a beta-adrenergic antagonist and a diuretic.
B. Propranolol (Inderal) would be considered good therapy for hypertensive patients with coexisting angina pectoris.
C. Enalapril (Vasotec) would be considered good therapy for hypertensive patients with coexisting congestive heart failure.
D. Nifedipine (Procardia) has a tendency to increase plasma levels of triglycerides and cholesterol.
The correct answer is D.

Calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine, as well as vasodilators, alpha-antagonists and ACE-inhibitors produce no change or actually decrease plasma lipids. On the other hand, thiazide diuretics and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists have been associated with increased plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, and decreased concentrations of HDL cholesterol, changes which are potentially unfavorable in terms of risk of cardiovascular disease.
All of the following antihypertensive drug combinations represent rational concurrent therapy EXCEPT:
A. Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril) - Triamterene (Dyrenium)
B. Nadolol (Corgard) - Labetalol (Trondate)
C. Lisinopril (Prinivil) - Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril)
D. Prazosin (Minipress) - Triamterene (Dyrenium
The correct answer is B.

In a two-drug regimen, drugs are combined most effectively when they have different sites and mechanisms of action. Nadolol (a beta-blocker) and labetalol (both beta- and alpha-1 blocker) have similar mechanisms of action and should not be combined.
All of the following antihypertensive drugs can be used to treat patients with bronchial asthma EXCEPT:
A. Enalapril (Vasotec)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Timolol (Blockadren)
D. Verapamil (Calon)
The correct answer is C.

Patients with bronchial asthma are poor candidates for therapy with beta-antagonists such as timolol. In these patients, sympathetic activity to the bronchioles (via beta-2 receptors) is necessary to maintain proper function; blocking that activity is therefore contraindicated.
All of the following statements regarding angiotensin II are true EXCEPT:
A. It is a peptide hormone.
B. It stimulates the secretion of aldosterone.
C. Angiotensin I is almost as potent as angiotensin II.
D. It is a potent vasoconstrictor.
The correct answer is C.

Although angiotensin I contains the peptide sequences necessary for all of the actions of the renin-angiotensin system, it has little or no biological activity.
All of the following statements regarding blood pressure regulation are true EXCEPT:
A. Changing either cardiac output or peripheral vascular resistance will directly affect blood pressure.
B. Renin release is inhibited by vagal stimulation.
C. The renin-angiotensin system is primarily involved in long-term regulation of blood pressure.
D. Aldosterone's effect on blood pressure results from its actions on sodium retention by the kidney.
The correct answer is B.

Norepinephrine of the sympathetic nervous system stimulates renin secretion via beta-1 adrenergic receptors (in humans). There is no opposing inhibition of renin secretion by the parasympathetic nervous system.
This drug is sometimes part of fixed-dose combinations used to treat essential hypertension.
A. Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril)
B. Amiloride (Midamor)
C. Both of the above
D. Neither of the above
The correct answer is C.

Both potassium-sparing diuretics (amiloride) and thiazides (hydrochlorothiazide) are used in fixed-dose combinations, often in conjunction, to treat essential hypertension.
Each of the following is a rational drug combination for treating hypertension EXCEPT:
A. Captopril (Capoten) and spironolactone (Aldactone)
B. Hydrochlorothiazide (Hydrodiuril), hydralazine (Apresoline) and propranolol (Inderal)
C. Metoprolol (Lopressor) and hydrochlorothiazide (Hydrodiuril)
D. Diltiazem (Cardizem) and enalapril (Vasotec)
The correct answer is A.

Captopril, an ACE inhibitor, greatly increases the hyperkalemic effect of spironolactone, a potassium-sparing diuretic
All of the following statements regarding methyldopa (Aldomet) are true EXCEPT:
A. It reduces sympathetic output from the CNS.
B. It is contraindicated in patients with active hepatic disease.
C. Its efficacy is increased by monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
D. It can cause sedation
The correct answer is C.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors decrease the efficacy of methyldopa and are therefore contraindicated.
All of the following are adverse effects of guanethidine (Ismelin) EXCEPT:
A. Sedation
B. Orthostatic hypotension
C. Diarrhea
D. Impotence
The correct answer is A.

Guanethidine does not enter the CNS, so it does not cause CNS side effects such as depression or sedation.
All of the following statements regarding prazosin (Minipress) are true EXCEPT:
A. It can cause a precipitous fall in blood pressure.
B. It does not impair exercise tolerance.
C. It adversely affects serum lipid levels.
D. It acts at vascular post-synaptic alpha-1 adrenergic receptors.
The correct answer is C.

Unlike diuretics and beta-blockers, alpha-blockers such as prazosin do not adversely affect -- and may even improve -- serum lipid levels
All of the following statements regarding beta-adrenergic antagonists are true EXCEPT:
A. Propranolol (Inderal) can mask insulin-induced hypoglycemia.
B. Nadolol (Corgard) has intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.
C. Metoprolol (Lopressor) is preferred over propranolol in treating asthmatics.
D. Labetolol (Trandate) has alpha-adrenergic antagonist activity
The correct answer is B.

Pindolol, not nadolol, has some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.
All of the following statements regarding vasodilators are true EXCEPT:
A. Hydralazine (Apresoline) causes tachycardia.
B. Fenoldopam (Corlopam) is a dopamine receptor antagonist.
C. Nitroprusside (Nipride) dilates both arterioles and veins.
D. Minoxidil (Loniten) can cause hypertrichosis
The correct answer is B.

Fenoldopam is a dopamine agonist.
All of the following statements regarding treatment of hypertension are true EXCEPT:
A. Lisinopril (Zestril) is recommended to treat hypertensive pregnant women.
B. African Americans often do not respond well to captopril (Capoten).
C. Low-dose diuretics have little effect on serum cholesterol.
D. Propranolol (Inderal) is contraindicated in patients with bronchospastic pulmonary disease
The correct answer is A.

Lisinopril is contraindicated in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
All of the following statements regarding treatment of hypertension are true EXCEPT:
A. Beta-blockers are generally not recommended during early pregancy.
B. African Americans generally respond well to beta-blockers.
C. Methyldopa is the agent used most widely to treat hypertension in pregnant women.
D. Angiotensin II antagonists are generally less effective than ACE inhibitors in treating hypertension.
The correct answer is B.

African Americans may not respond well to beta-blockers or ACE inhibitors; however, diuretics and calcium channel blockers are often effective in these patients.
All of the following statements regarding verapamil (Calan) are true EXCEPT:
A. It blocks L-type calcium channels.
B. It increases heart rate.
C. It relaxes coronary artery smooth muscle.
D. It depresses cardiac contractility.
The correct answer is B.

Bradycardia is a common side effect of verapamil use.
This drug is a renin inhibitor.
A. Zankiren
B. Fenoldopam (Corlopam)
C. Losartan (Cozaar)
D. Diazoxide (Hyperstat I.V.)
The correct answer is A.

Zankiren is a renin inhibitor.
This drug is a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist.
A. Zankiren
B. Fenoldopam
C. Losartan (Cozaar)
D. Diazoxide (Hyperstat IV)
The correct answer is C.

Losartan is a non-peptide antiotensin II receptor antagonist.
This drug is a dopamine agonist.
A. Zankiren
B. Fenoldopam
C. Losartan (Cozaar)
D. Diazoxide (Hyperstat IV)
The correct answer is B.

Fenoldopam, a dopamine agonist vasodilator, is used for short-term treatment of severe hypertension in hospital patients.
This drug is a potassium channel activator.
A. Zankiren
B. Saralasin
C. Losartan (Cozaar)
D. Diazoxide (Hyperstat IV)
The correct answer is D.

Diazoxide, a vasodilator that activates potassium channels in smooth muscle, is used for hypertensive emergencies.
All of the following statements concerning antihypertensive drugs are true EXCEPT:
A. Furosemide (Lasix) can cause hypoglycemia.
B. Hydrochlorothiazide (Hydrodiuril) has a shorter duration of action than chlorthalidone (Hygroton).
C. Triamterene (Dyrenium) can be used to prevent hypokalemia.
D. Nifedipine (Procardia) can cause tachycardia.
The correct answer is A.

Furosemide, a loop diuretic, may cause mild hyperglycemia. Its main side effects include hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, ototoxicity, and hyperuricemia.
All of the following statements regarding clonidine (Catapres) are true EXCEPT:
A. It reduces sympathetic output from the CNS.
B. Orthostatic hypotension occurs infrequently after its administration.
C. It is an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist.
D. Sedation is a possible side effect of its administration.
The correct answer is C.

Clonidine is a CNS alpha-2 adrenergic agonist
All of the following statements are true regarding antihypertensive therapy EXCEPT:
A. ACE inhibitors are useful in treating patients with congestive heart failure.
B. Patients with bronchospastic pulmonary disease should never take a beta-blocker.
C. African American patients generally respond well to beta-blockers.
D. ACE inhibitors are useful in treating hyperlipidemic patients.
The correct answer is C.

African Americans may not respond well to beta-blockers or ACE inhibitors. However, diuretics and calcium channel blockers are often effective.
All of the following statements regarding antihypertensives are true EXCEPT:
A. Loop diuretics have a longer duration of action than most thiazides.
B. A precipitous fall in blood pressure can accompany the first administration of prazosin (Minipress).
C. Verapamil (Calan) can cause bradycardia.
D. Hydralazine (Apresoline) is used in the treatment of hypertensive emergencies
The correct answer is A.

The half-life of loop diuretics is 1-1.5 hours, while the half-life of thiazide diuretics is 6-48 hours.
All of the following statements regarding antihypertensive therapy are true EXCEPT:
A. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) antagonize the antihypertensive effects of guanethidine (Ismelin).
B. Guanethidine (Ismelin) is generally reserved for treating severe hypertension.
C. Metoprolol (Lopressor) is useful in treating hypertensive patients who also suffer from asthma.
D. Captopril (Capoten) increases the breakdown of bradykinin.
The correct answer is D.

Not only do ACE inhibitors such as captopril block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, but they also block the breakdown of bradykinin.
All of the following statements regarding losartan (Cozaar) are correct EXCEPT:
A. It is an angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor agonist.
B. Hyperkalemia can result from its administration.
C. It is an alternative for patients who develop intractable cough associated with ACE inhibitors.
D. It is contraindicated in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
The correct answer is A.

Losartan is an AT1 receptor antagonist.
All of the following statements concerning the treatment of primary hypertension are true EXCEPT:
A. Successful, long-term control improves life expectancy by reducing or preventing the development of secondary cardiovascular complications.
B. Most cases require the use of one or more drugs for optimal control.
C. Drug treatment can usually be withdrawn after two to three years of maintaining blood pressure at optimal levels.
D. Newer types of antihypertensive drugs often permit successful therapy without seriously compromising patients' quality of life.
The correct answer is C.

Essential hypertension is a chronic disorder that does not simply resolve after a few years of therapy.
All of the following statements regarding the use of diuretics for the treatment of hypertension are true EXCEPT:
A. Mild hypertension can often be managed by treatment with thiazide diuretics alone.
B. High-ceiling (loop) diuretics (e.g. furosemide [Lasix]) are generally reserved for advanced hypertension in the presence of kidney or heart failure.
C. Combination therapy with two or more drugs typically includes a diuretic preparation.
D. Potassium-sparing diuretics such as triamterene (Dyrenium) are especially useful in combination with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.
The correct answer is D.

Hyperkalemia, a possible side effect of potassium-sparing diuretics, can be greatly increased by ACE inhibitors.
All of the following statements regarding the use of vasodilator drugs in treating hypertension are true EXCEPT:
A. Minoxidil (Loniten) is seldom, if ever, used alone for chronic therapy.
B. The daily dose of hydralazine (Apresoline) is limited by its tendency to produce a lupus erythematosis syndrome.
C. Diazoxide (Hyperstat) has the advantage of having a brief duration of action for intravenous control of hypertensive emergencies.
D. Minoxidil is the active ingredient of Rogaine, a topical preparation used to stimulate hair growth.
The correct answer is C.

Diazoxide has a nearly immediate onset of action and a long duration of action of 4-12 hours, making it useful for intravenous control of hypertensive emergencie
Each of the following is a rational drug combination for the treatment of hypertension EXCEPT:
A. Timolol (Blockadren) - Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL)
B. Clonidine (Catapres) - Alpha-methyldopa (Aldomet)
C. Hydralazine (Apresoline) - Propranolol (Inderal) - Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL)
D. Prazosin (Minipress) - Triamterene (Dyrenium)
The correct answer is B.

Clonidine, an alpha-2 CNS agonist, can potentiate the effects of alpha-methyldopa, another alpha-2 CNS agonist.
This drug acts by blocking alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the CNS.
A. Enalapril (Vasotec)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Labetalol (Normodyne)
D. Verapamil (Calan)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is E.

None of the above drugs block alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. However labetalol blocks alpha-1 receptors in the CNS.
This drug can produce potentially fatal angioneurotic edema.
A. Enalapril (Vasotec)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Labetalol (Normodyne)
D. Verapamil (Calan)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is A.

Side effects of enalapril, an ACE inhibitor, include angioneurotic edema, dry cough, rash, and hyperkalemia.
This drug is most likely to increase plasma lipids.
A. Enalapril (Vasotec)
B. Clonidine (Catapres)
C. Labetalol (Normodyne)
D. Verapamil (Calan)
E. None of the above
The correct answer is C.

Both thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers (such as labetalol, a blocker of both alpha and beta receptors) actually increase plasma triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins.
Alpha1-Adrenergic Antagonists
prazosin (Minipress)
Beta-Adrenergic Antagonists
# propranolol (Inderal)
# nadolol (Corgard)
# timolol (Blocadren)
# metoprolol (Lopressor)
# pindolol (Visken)
Combined Alpha/Beta-Adrenergic Antagonists
labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate
Adrenergic Neuron Blocking Agents
# guanethidine (Ismelin)
# reserpine (Serpasil)
CNS-Acting Antihypertensives
# clonidine (Catapres)
# methyldopa (Aldomet)
# guanabenz (Wytensin
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
# captopril (Capoten)
# enalapril (Vasotec)
# lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)
Angiotensin-II Receptor Antagonists
losartan
Calcium Channel Blockers
# verapamil (Calan, Isoptin)
# diltiazem (Cardizem)
# nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia)
Direct Vasodilators
chronic therapy
# hydralazine (Apresoline)
# minoxidil (Loniten)
Direct Vasodilators
hypertensive emergency
* nitroprusside (Nipride)
* diazoxide (Hyperstat IV)
* hydralazine (Apresoline)
* minoxidil (Loniten)
* verapamil, IV