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50 Cards in this Set

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What role does HMG-reductase play in cholestrol synthesis?
It is the rate limiting step in de novo cholestrol synthesis
What role does LPL play in cholesterol progression
LPL converts VLDL into IDL,
IDL into LDL
Chylomicrons into chylomicron remnants
What works with LPL and HL to bring chylomicrons back to the liver?
Apo E protein
Where are bile acids formed?
liver
What role do bile acids play in cholesterol formation?
bile acids sequester dietary fat and cholesterol and package them into chylomicrons
What is the cause of primary chylomicronemia?
decrease in LPL activity
How does primary chylomicronemia present?
increase in:
chylomicrons
VLDL
How can you treat primary chylomicronemia?
Fibrates
niacins
What causes familial hypertriglyceridema?
impaired removal of VLDL and/or Chylomicrons
How does familial hypertriglyceridema present?
increase in
VLDL (moderate disease)
VLDL and chylomicrons (severe)
What causes familial combined hyperlipidemia
(familial combined hyperlipoproteinemia)?
Increase in VLDL production

along with a high conversion of VLDL to LDL
How does familial combined hyperlipidemia present?
high VLDL
or
High LDL
or
High VLDL and LDL
What causes dysbetalipoproteinemia?
decreased clearance of VLDL (IDL) and chylomicron remnants
How does dysbetalipoproteinemia manifest?
high IDL
high chylomicrons
How does familial hyper-cholesterolemia present?
high LDL
What causes familial hyper-cholesterolemia?
LDLR impairments (hetero or Homo LDLR gene mutations)

high fat diet
inactivity
What causes familial ligand-defective ApoB?
mutation in apo-B100 resulting in impaired endocytosis of LDL
What role does ApoB100 play?
deals with endocytosis of LDL to bring to the liver
How does familial lignad-defective apoB present?
high LDL
How does Lp(a) hyperlipoproteinemia present?
high Lp(a)
What causes hyperlipoproteinemia?
increased production of Lp(a)
Name some resins
cholestyramine
colestipol
Name some fibrates
fenofibrate
gemfibrozil
Name some absorption inhibitors.
Ezetimibe
Name some Niacins.
Nicotinic acid
Vitamin B3
Statins work through what mechanism?
inhibit HMG-CoA reductase
What is the MoA for Resins?
Bind Bile acids
What is the only disorder that uses Resins?
familial hyper-cholesterolemia
What is the MoA for Niacin?
inhibits VLDL synthesis and secretion by the liver
Niacin can be used for what disorders?
all disorders
What is the MoA for Fibrates?
activation of PPAR Receptor
What does PPAR receptor do?
transcription factor that increases LPL synthesis and decreases LPL inhibitor synthesis
Which drugs causes you to use the cholesterol in your body already?
Resins
Statins
What is the MoA of absorption inhibitors?
inhibit absorption of dietary cholestrol
How much can absortion inhibitors affect total cholesterol?
decrease cholesterol by 13% and LDL by 18%
What drugs are used to treat familial hypertriglyceridemia?
niacin
fibrates
What drugs are used to treat primary chylomicronemia?
niacin
fibrates
What drug is used to treat familial combined hyperlipoproteinemia when VLDL are increased?
niacin
fibrates
What drug is used to treat familial combined hyperlipoproteinemia when just LDL is increased?
statins
niacin
ezetimibe (absorption inhibitor)
What drug is used to treat familial combined hyperlipoproteinemia when both LDL and VLDL are increased?
statins
niacin
What drugs are used to treat familial dysbetalipoproteinemia?
Fibrate
niacin
What drugs are used to treat familial hypercholesterolemia when it is hetero?
statin
resin
niacin
ezetimibe
What drug is used to treat homo familial hypercholesterolemia?
niacin
statin
ezetimibe
What drugs are used to treat familial ligand-defective ApoB?
Niacin
statin
ezetimibe
What drugs are used to treat Lp(a) hyperlipoproteinemia?
Niacin
What are the adverse effects of statins?
myopathy
liver dysfunction
What are the adverse effects of resins?
GI distress
constipation
decreased drug and fat soluble vit absorptions
What are the adverse effects of Niacin?
Cutaneous flush
GI distress
hepatotoxicity
hyperglycemia
hyperuricemia
What are the adverse effects of fibrates?
myopathy
gallstones
dyspepsia
What are the adverse effects of absorption inhibitors?
rare myopathy