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71 Cards in this Set

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11-Sep
September 11, 2001: Terrorist group al-Qaeda hijacked 4 jetliners, flew two into the World Trade Centers destroying them and killing 3000 people, One into the Pentagon killin 189, and the fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. Led to President Bush's War on terror
al-Qaeda
Worldwide terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden, responsible for numerous terrorits attacks against US interests includeing September 11th 2001 attacks against the World Trade Center and the Pentagon
Barbary Wars
Conflicts the US fought in the early eighteenth centrury with North African states against their piracy
Big Three
The tree major anti-German and anti-Japenese allies during WWII: Great Britain, Soviet Union, US
Bretton Woods Agreement
International financial agreement signed shortly before the end of WWII that created the World Bank and the Internationa Monetary Fund
Carter Doctrine
announced after the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan that the persian Gulf area was a vial US interest ad the Us would fight to maintain access to it
CIA
Central Intelligence Agency. Executive agency responsible for collection and analysis of information and intelligence about foreign countries and events
collective security
Concept that peace would be secured if all countries collectively opposed any country that invaded another
containmnet
Strategy to oppose expansion of Soviet power, particularly in Western Europe and East Asia, with military power, economic assistance, and political influence. Americans believed that the Soviet Union wanted to dominate the world, and the United States would therefore apply a counterforce wherever the Soviet Union applied pressure.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The 1962 confrontation that nearly escalated into war between the United States and Soviet Union over Soviet deployment of medium-range ballistic missiles in Cuba. In 1961, Kennedy and Khruschev met in Vienna, but the meeting did not go well. A year later, the Soviet Union began to deploy imtermediate-range ballistic missiles in Cuba, and the United states reacted by placing a naval blockade around Cuba and warning the Soviet Union to withdraw the missiles or sufer the consequences. After several days, Khruschev backed down.
Department of Defense
Chief executive branch department responsible for formulation and implementation of U.S. military policy. It provides the forces to undertake military operations. It directs forces from the Pentagon, and the Department of Defense is among the most influential executive departments. When the Cold War ended, the U.S. cut its armed forces and its defense spending. In recent years, however, it has been increasing. It plays a major role in the global war on terrorism.
Department of State
Chief executive branch department responsible for formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign policy. The Department of State personnel gather information on foreign political, economic, social, and military situations, represent the U.S. in negotiations and international organizations, and provide services such as processing visa applications.
détente
The relaxation of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union that occurred during the 1970s. President Nixon realized that it was time to move from an "era of confrontation" to an "era of negotiation" in relations to the Soviet Union because nuclear war would destroy life as it existed.
Embargo Act
Passed by Congress in 1807 to prevent U.S. ships from leaving U.S. ports for foreign ports without the approval of the federal government.
engagement
Policy implemented during the Clinton administration that the United States would remain actively involved in foreign affairs.
enlargement
Policy implemented during the Clinton administration that the United States would actively promote the expansion of democracy and free markets throughout the world.
GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: Devised shortly after WWII as an interim agreement until a World Trade Organization could be created to help lower tariffs and increase trade.
General Assembly
The United Nations governing organization that all members have a seat on.
grand strategy
The choices a government makes to balance and apply economic, military, diplomatic, and other resources to preserve the nation's people, territory, and values.
guns or butter?
Used to describe choice of US in 1960's between using government revenues for war in Vietnam and military (guns) or domestic spending on social reform (butter). Also, a country's choice to either send troops and military aid to a country or to send humanitarian aid.
human rights
The belief that human beings have inalienable rights such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion and that decent governments strive to respect and protect these rights. Codified in the UN Declarartion of Human Rights.
IGO
An organization created by the governments of at least two and often many countries that operates internationally with the objectives of achieving the purposes that the member countries agreed upon.
IMF
International Monetary Fund: International governmental organization created shortly before the end of WWII to stablize international financial relations through fixed monetary exchange rates.
impressment
The British practice in the early eighteenth century of stopping ships at sea to seize sailors suspected of having deserted the Royal Navy.
information warfare
attacks against information and communication systems (threatening United States security)
Iranian hostage crisis
Carter admin., 1979; radical Iranian students backed by government held U.S. embassy in Tehran; country lost faith in Carter admin when they failed to rescue/return hostages; hostages returned the day Carter left office (1981)
isolationism
national policy to avoid intervention in foreign affairs
Korean War
choice in 1950 by US to enter Korean War on the side of the South Koreans (originally to help them beat North Korea, but then to defend S. Korea and prevent them from losing land); China entered on N. Korea’s side, landlock for a while, until truce was reached that was basically what had been there in the start
Kyto Agreements
treaties made at 1997 Kyoto Conference on Global Climate Change to reduce fossil fuel emissions; supported by Clinton but decried - and withdrawn from - by Bush as too costly
League of Nations
created post-WWI; international organization dedicated to pursuit of peace
Lend-Lease Program
WWII program in which U.S. lent equipment and supplies to Britain in exchange for leases on bases
Manifest Destiny
theory that U.S. had divine right to conquer North America
Marshall Plan
European Recovery Program, named after Secretary of State George C. Marshall, of extensive U.S. aid to Western Europe following World War II.
military-industrial complex
The grouping of the U.S. armed forces and defense industries.
Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe's 1832 pledge that the United States would oppose attempts by European states to extend their political control into the Western Hemisphere.
moralism
The policy of emphasizing morality in foreign affairs. Woodrow Wilson and Jummy Carter were its best known presidential exponents.
multilateralism
The U.S. foreign policy that actions should be taken in cooperation with other states after consultation.
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an international agreement between US, Mexico, and Canada to allow unrestricted trade between their countries without quotas or tariffs. Supported by most businesses and opposed by many unions, who fear the loss of jobs. Passed in 1994. Despite the intents of NAFTA to promote greater trade and economic integration, the U.S., Canada, and Mexico retain their own currencies.
National Security Council
Executive agency responsible for advising the president about foreign and military policy and events.
NATO
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization: the first peacetime military treaty the United Stated joined; NATO is a regional political and military organization created in 1950.
NGO
A nongovernmental organization that is unbiased and untied to a government.
Nixon Doctrine
The policy implemented at the end of the Vietnam War that the United States wold provide arms and military equipment to countries but not do the fighting for them.
Operation Desert Storm
The 1991 American-lead attack against Iraq to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
Operation Iraqi Freedom
the 2003 American-lead attack against Iraq to remove Sadaam Hussein from power.
Pearl Harbor
Naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japan on December 7, 1941, initiating U.S. entry into World War II
Pentagon
Building accommodating the U.S. Dept. of Defense. A five-sided building consisting of five concentric pentagons. Completed in 1943, it was intended to consolidate the various offices of the U.S. War Dept., now the Dept. of Defense.
Philippine Insurrection
Event that triggered the Spanish-American War. Filippinos took control of surrounding islands sparking a conference between Spain and America to determine its future, resulting in a war.
pragmatism
The policy of taking advantage of a situation for national gain.
Reagan Doctrine
When Ronald Reagan was elected, U.S.-Soviet relations deteriorated rapidly. He called the USSR an evil empire, stepped up defense spending, announced an activist foreign policy designed, once again, to contain Soviet expansion, and began funding the Afghan opposition.
Roosevelt Corollary
Concept developed by President Teddy Roosevelt early in the twentieth century that it was the US responsibility to assure stability in Latin American and the Caribbean.
Security Council
A body within the United Nations that has five permanent members: Britain, France, the USA, Russia, and China. Each of these members has veto power over all decisions discussed in this body so as to ensure that one country is not ruined by the majority opinion.
Spanish-American War
Brief 1898 war agains Spain because of Spanish brutality in Cuba and U.S. desire to attain overseas territory.
START
The Strategic Offensive Arms Reduction Treaty was a treaty between the USA and Russia agreed upon in 2002 that reduced the number of nuclear warheads in each side's arsenals respectively to about 1,700 and 2,200, the lowest total in decades.
Taliban
Fundamentalist Islamic government of Afghanistan that provided terrorist training bases for al-Qaeda.
tariffs
Taxes on imports used to raise government revenue and to protect infant industries.
Truman Doctrine
U.S. policy innated in 1947 of providing economic assistance and military aid to countries fighting against communists revolutions or political pressure
UN
United Nations: an international governmental organization created shortly before the end of WW2 to guarantee the security of nations and to promote global economic, physical, and social well being
unilateralism
a national policy of acting without consulting others
Vietnam War
Between 1965 and 1973, the U.S. deployed up to 500,000 troops to Vietnam to try to prevent North Vietnam from taking over South Vietnam; the effort failed and was extremely divisive within the U.S.
War of 1812
Fought between the U.S. and Great Britain over impressment and U.S. territorial designs on Canada
war on terrorism
initiated by G.W. Bush after 9/11 attacks to weed out terrorists operatives throughout the world, using diplomacy, military means, and improved homeland security, stricter banking laws and other means
War Powers Act
The 1973 WAR POWERS ACT requires the president to consult with Congress before deploying troops abroad for more than 60 days in Peacetime
Washington's Farewell Address
1796 G. Washington’s final address as president in which he declared that the U.S. should avoid becoming involved in foreign alliances
weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
Biological, Chemical, and Nuclear weapons, which present a sizeable threat to U.S. security
World Bank
international governmental organization created shortly before the end of WW2 to provide loans for large economic development projects
World Trade Organization (WTO)
An international organization created to provide the ground rules for international trade and commerce.
CCC
During the Great Depression of 1930's, this FDR-sponsored New Deal program--the Civilian Conservation Corps--provided work for young, unemployed and unmarried men. For their work, they receieved food and shelter, and were paid $30 per month, $25 of which was sent to family and relatives.
CWA
The Civil Works Administration that intended to put people tow ork as quickly as possible for the stated goal of building public works projects; it employed over 4 million workers and although it assisted in building moral and economic capital, critics claimed it was too political and rife with corruption. In response to such criticisms, Roosevelt ordered the CWA to be disbanded in 1934.
Emergency Banking
An act that empowered the secretary of the treasury to repoen financially sound institutions as where unsound banks would remain closed under the supervision of "conservators".
Social Security
The establishment of old-age insurance and assistance for the needy, children, and others and and unemployment insurance as well.
WPA
The Works Progress Administration revived the notion of a federal works program by absorbing 30 percent of the unemployed and constructing or improving over 20,000 playgrounds, schools, hospitals and airfields.