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29 Cards in this Set

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what are the components of all connective tissue?
fiber, cells, extracellular matrix.
What is extracellular matrix?
Extracellular matrix is made up of ground substance and fibers
what is ground substance?
Ground substance is made up of extracellular proteins.
what is type 1 collagen found in?
main type of collagen found in bone, CT and teeth.
what is type 2 collagen found in?
found in cartilage
what is type 3 collagen found in?
reticular fibers
what is type 4 collagen found in?
basement membrane
what is type 7 collagen found in?
Connects basement membrane to extracellular matrix.
what are MMPs and what is their function?
4) Collagen can be broken down by matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). If fiber is damaged MMPs will engulf (phagocytosis) and break collagen down. This happens when there is sun damage.
what are reticular fibers?
5) Reticular fibers are made up of type 3 collagen. They are found in loose connective tissue and mostly produced by fibroblasts.
what is cirrhosis and when does it occur?
When there is damage to the liver, you have the inflammation of reticular fibers which will then be replaced by collagen fibers. This scarring and disarray of the cells makes it difficult for the blood to move through the liver. This is called Cirrhosis.
what is elastic fiber?
6) Elastic fibers have an elastic core with a fibrillin structure. Fibrillin is deposited first and then elastin is deposited and then an elastin core with fibrillin micro structure on the outside.
what is marphans syndrome and what can it lead to?
Marfan’s Syndrome is where you lose the fibrillin microstructure in elastic fiber and it is too stretchy and can cause aortic anurisem.
what kind of cells are found in connective tissue?
fibroblasts, macrophages, adipocytes, Mast cells, lymphocytes, neutrophills and esinophills.
what kind of cells in connective tissue are there to stay?
fibroblasts, macrophages, adipocytes and Mast cells.
what kind of cells in connective tissue wander?
lymphocytes, neutrophills and esinophills.
what do fibroblasts do?
Synthesize fibers and ground substance. They have a long skinny oval shape.
what do macrophages do?
1. Phagocytic, digestive and secretory functions. These cells have and oval or kidney shaped nucleus. Look in lungs.
what do adipocytes do?
1. These are fat cells that store fat but also synthesize hormones, growth factors, and inflammatory mediators. The nucleus is pushed to the sirde and a lipid droplet replaces pushes it.
what do mast cells do?
They are activated during alergic reactions. They release granules of histamine and heprin when activated.
what is histamine?
Histamine increases contraction of vessels, permeability of vessels and increases mucous production.
what is heprin?
Heprin is an anticoagulant.
what are the types of connective tissues?
loose, dense regular, dense irregular, and adipose
what is loose connective tissue?
9) Loose connective tissue is low in fibers and ground substance and cells. This is good for diffusion. Found beneath epithelia.
what is dense irregular connective tissue and where is it found?
a. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue is high in fibers and low in ground substance and high in cells. These cells resist stretching and are found in the submucosa of GI and skin.
what is dense regular connective tissue and where is it found?
b. Dense regular connective tissue is really high in fibers, low in cels and very very low in ground substance. Very strong and are found in tendons and ligaments. Very good for strength and very bad for diffusion.
what is adipose tissue?
10) Adipose tissue is used for energy storage/metabolism, insulation, endocrine, and cushioning. White adipose tissue is found in adults and regulates leptin levels which lower appetite and higher metabolism.
what is brown adipose tissue?
Brown adipose tissue is found in children and used for heat production. This is found in children because they lack muscles. Brown adipose tissue have tiny droplets of fat in them.
can you develop insensitivity to leptin?
yes