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91 Cards in this Set

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An organic compound that combines with an inactive protein called an apoenzym to form a catalytically active protein called a holoenzyme.
Coenzyme
why are B and C vitamins more easily excreted from the body than fat-soluble vitamins?
Because they are water soluble.
Which vitamins are water-soluble?
B & C
why should you not depend too much on enriched foods for vitamins?
because whole grains (as well as fruits and vegetables) contain phytochemicals.
What is a positive effect of phytochemicals?
They may decrease the risk of certain disease.
How are water-soluble vitamins absorbed compared to how fat-soluble vitamins are?
Water soluble: directly into the blood.
Fat Soluble: First into the lymph, then the blood.
How are water soluble vitamins transported compared to fat-soluble vitamins?
Water: travel freely
Fat: many require protein carriers
How are water-soluble vitamins stored? Fat-soluble?
Water: calculate freely in water-filled parts of the body.
Fat: Stored in the cells associated with fat.
How are water soluble and fat soluble vitamins excreted?
Water: kidneys detect and remove excess in urine.
Fat: remain in fat-storage sites.
Where is Thiamin absorbed, transported and excreted?
Absorbed in the small intestine.
Transported in the blood by red blood cells.
Excreted in the urine.
What converts glucose into pentose sugars?
Transketolase.
What is the RDA of Thiamin in men? In women?
Men: 1.2 mg/day
Women: 1.1 mg/day
What is the chief function of Thiamin in the body?
Part of coenzyme TPP used in energy metabolism.
What is another name for Thiamin?
B1
Thiamin is easily destroyed by _____.
heat
What are some significant sources of Thiamin?
Whole grain, fortified or enriched grain products.
Moderate amts in all nutritious foods.
Pork.
What are some clinical signs of thiamin deficiency? (8)
anorexia, weight loss, apathy, loss of short-term memory, confusion, GI tract distress, peripheral neuropathy and muscle weakness.
Impaired sensory, motor and relex functions, affecting arms and legs and causing calf muscle tenderness and difficulty in rising from a squatting position.
Peripheral Neuropathy
What is another name for Riboflavin?
B2
What is the RDA of riboflavin for men? For women?
Men: 1.3 mg/day
Women: 1.1 mg/day
What is the chief function of riboflavin in the body?
Part of coenzymes FAD and FMN used in energy metabolism.
How is riboflavin absorbed?
Via active or facilitated transport in the small intestine.
How is riboflavin transported?
by protein carriers in the blood.
Where is riboflavin stored? Excreted
Stored in the liver. Excreted in the urine.
What are some significant sources or riboflavin?
Milk products (yogurt,cheese)
Enriched or whole grains
Liver
What is riboflavin destroyed by?
UV light and irradiation
What does it mean that riboflavin coenzymes have redox reaction functions?
It means that these coenzymes either take electrons from a substrate or give electrons to a substrate.
What deficiency disease is related to riboflavin?
Ariboflavinosis
What are the symptoms of Ariboflavinosis? (5)
*Inflammed eyelids, sensitivity to light, reddening of corneas
*Sore Throat
*Cracks and mouth corners
*Painful, smooth, purple tongue
*skin lesions, greasy scales
3 sympoms of eyes
What are some other names of Niacin? (4)
1. B3
2. Nicotinic acid
3. Nicotinamide
4. Niacinamide
What is the RDA for Niacin for men? For women?
Men: 16 mg NE/day
Women: 14 mg NE/day
How is niacin absorbed?
From the stomach and the intestine by active transport and passive diffusion.
How is Niacin transported?
From the liver to all tissues where is it converted to its coenzyme forms NAD+ and NADP.
Where is Niacin coenzymes stored?
In the liver.
What are the chief functions of Niacin in the body?
Part of coenzymes NAD and NADP used in energy metabolism.
What are some significant sources of Niacin? (8)
-Milk
-eggs
-meat
-poultry
-fish
-Whole grain and enriched breads and cereals
-Nuts
-All protein-containing foods
What deficiency disease is related to Niacin?

What are the symptoms of this disease? (4)
Pellagra

*Diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting
*Inflammed tongue
*Depression, apathy, fatigue
*rash on areas exposed to sunlight.
What are toxicity symptoms related to Niacin? (4)
-painful flush, hives and rash ('niacin flush')
-Excessive sweating
-Blurred vision
-Liver damage, impaired glucose tolerance
What are symptoms of Pellagra?
-Diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting
-Inflammed, swollen, smooth, bright red tongue
-Depression, apathy, fatigue, loss of memory, headache
-Bilateral symmetrical rash on areas exposed to sunlight
Out of Thiamin, riboflavin and Niacin, which is the most likely to lead to toxic effects when consumed in high doses?
Niacin
1. What is the Adequate intake (AI) of Biotin for adults?

2. What are the chief functions of Biotin in the body?
1. 30 ug/day

2. Part of coenzyme used in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, fat synthesis, and glycogen synthesis.
What are some deficiency symptoms of Biotin?
-Depression, lethargy, hallucinations, numb or tingling sensation in the arms and legs
-Red, scaly rash around the eyes, nose and mouth
-hair loss
What is the AI of Pantothenic Acid in adults?
5 mg/day
What are the chief functions in the body of Pantothenic Acid?
Part of coenzyme A, used in energy metabolism.
What are some significant sources of Pantothenic Acid?
-Widespread in foods
-Organ meats, mushrooms, avocados, broccoli, whole grains
How are Pantothenic Acids destroyed?
By food processing
What are some deficiency symptoms of Pantothenic Acid?
-vomiting, nausea, stomach cramps
-Insomnia, fatigue, depression, irritability, restlessness, apathy
-Hypoglycemia, increased sensitivity to insulin
What are some other names for B-6?
-Pyridoxine
-Pyridoxal
-Pyridoxamine
What is the RDA for adults (19-50 years) for B-6?
1.3 mg/day
What are the chief functions of B-6 in the body? (3)
1.Part of coenzymes PLP and PMP used in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism
2.Helps to convert tryptophan to niacin and to serotonin
3.Helps to make red blood cells
What are some significant sources of B-6?
-Meats, poultry, fish
-potatoes, legumes, noncitrus fruits
-liver
-fortified cereals
-soy products
What are some deficiency symptoms of B-6? (6)
-Scaly dermatitis
-Anemia
-Depression
- confusion
- abnormal brain wave pattern
- convulsions
What are some toxicity symptoms of B-6? (3)
-Depression, fatigue, irritability, headaches
-Nerve damage: causing numbness and muscle weakness leading to an inability to walk and convulsions
-Skin lesions
What is the Upper level for adults for B-6 set at?
100 mg/day
______, _________ and ______ function in various biochemical pathways used for the metabolism of glucose, amino acids and fatty acid.
Thiamin, Niacin and Riboflavin (the B vitamins)
_____ and ______ both participate in metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat.
Pantothenic Acid and Biotin
Why is deficiency of Biotin and/or Pantothenic Acid unlikely?
Because
1.Pantothenic Acid is found in a wide variety of foods and
2.Our need for biotin is met by synthesis from intestinal bacteria.
Enzyme systems in the intestine that enhance folate absorption.
Conjugase
What are some other names for Folate?
-Folic Acid
-Folacin
-PGA
What is the RDA for Folate in Adults? What is the upper level?
400 ug/day
upper: 1000ug/day
What are the chief functions of Folate in the body?
Part of coenzymes THF and DHF used in DNA synthesis and therefore important in new cell formation.
What are some significant sources of Folate?
-Fortified grains
-Leafy green vegetables, legumes, seeds
-Liver
How must Folate be absorbed?
They must be broken down (hydrolyzed) to the monoglutamate form in the GI tract.
What are some deficiency symptoms of Folate?
-Anemia (large cell)
-Smooth, red tongue
-Mental confusion, weakness, fatigue, irritability, headache
What are some toxicity symptoms of Folate?
-Masks vitamin B12
-deficiency symptoms
How is vitamin B-12 absorbed?
it is released from proteins by the action of HCl and pepsin in gastric juice.
What are some other names for B-12?
Cobalamin
What is the RDA for B-12 in adults?
2.4 ug/day
What are some of the chief functions of B-12 in the body?
-Part of coenzymes methylcobalamin and deoxy. used in new cell synthesis
-Helps maintain nerve cells
-reforms folate coenzyme
-Helps break down fatty and amino acids
What are some significant sources of B-12?
-Animal products (meat, fish, poultry, shellfish, milk, eggs, cheese)
What is B-12 easily destroyed by?
Microwave cooking
What deficiency disease is related to B-12?
pernicious anemia
What are some deficiency symptoms of B-12?
-Anemia (lg. cell)
-Fatigue, degeneration of peripheral nerves progressing to paralysis
What is the chief function of Choline?
Needed for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the phospholipid lecithin.
What are some non-B vitamins?
-Inositol
-Carnitine
-Vitamin imposters
An organic or inorganic substance that binds to a specific region on an enzyme and is necessary for the enzyme's activity.
Cofactor
A compound that speeds the rate of a chemical process, but is not altered by the process.
Enzyme
Almost all enzymes are ______ and some are made of ______ ____.
a. Proteins
b. nucleic acids
A term generally meaning that vitamins, minerals or both have been added to a food product in excess of what was originally found in the product.
Fortified
A term generally meaning that the vitamins thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and folate and the mineral iron have been added to a grain product to improve nutritional quality.
Enriched
Compounds needed in very small amounts in the diet to help regulate and support chemical reactions in the body
Vitamins
Elements used in the body to promote chemical reactions and to form body structures.
Minerals
What is the difference between vitamins and mineral?
Minerals and vitamins are different types of substances in the body. Vitamins are organic substances that help to maintain proper body activity and catalyze vital processes. Minerals are basically elements that not only enhance body functions but also form important parts of the body.
How do vitamins and minerals have in common?
Vitamins and minerals are both essential for proper functions in the body aside from food required for energy. Vitamins and minerals are necessary in order to enhance body functions and prevent from particular conditions.
What is a mineral vital to health that is required in the diet in amounts greater than 100 mg/day?
Major Mineral
What is a mineral vital to health that is required in the diet in amounts less than 100 mg/day?
Trace Mineral
What is the difference between trace and major minerals?
They are both require in the diet, although major minerals are required in the diet in amounts greater than 100mg/day and Trace minerals are required in less than 100 mg/day.
What deficiency disease is related to Thiamin (B1)?
Beriberi
What deficiency symptoms are related to beriberi?
*Enlarged heart
*Cardiac failure
*Anorexia
*Weight loss
*Apathy
*loss of short term memory
*Confusion
Muscular weakness
Same as Thiamin deficiency (+2)
What defect does a deficiency of folate cause during pregnancy.
A neural tube defect resulting in spina bifida.
How are vitamins different from carbohydrates, fats and proteins?
-Structure
-Function
-Food content