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11 Cards in this Set

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Scientific Revolution
-Revolution replaced medieval view of universe with new cosmology
+Cosmology: origins, structure, and space-time relationships of universe
-thinkers affirmed individuals ability to know natural world through:
+mathmatical reasoning
+direct observations
+controlled experimentation
-medieval view of universe rooted Aristotles's cosmology as developed by Ptolemy and teaching of Roman Catholic Chruch
Characteristics of medieval view of universe
-earth stationary and stands at center of universe just above hell
-seven planents revolve around earth
-Earth not planet (didn't revolve)
-sphere of fixed stars
-Beyond stars lies 3 heavenly spheres; outermost belonging to God
+So..God created universe for humanity and salvation was ultimate aim of life
+So..Aristotle's cosmology reigns supreme in west for more than 1500 years...
~roughly June-Aug., travel backwards in sky: retrograde motion
~it's problem b/c cosmology of Aristotle's (crystal spheres can't explain it)
Claudius Ptolemy
-attempted to solve problem within paranameters of geocentric Aristotelian model (with its circular orbits and crystal spheres, developing idea of epicycles
-Renaissance, Aristotelian model could no longer support new observations of heavens being made by astronomers
Nikolas Kopernig (Copernicus)
-developed new model of solar system placed sun at center (heliocentric)
-Wrong about placement of universe=wrong about something else as well
-system based on mathematical calculations and maintained circular orbits described by Aristotle.
+accurately described, predicted retrograde motion of Mars
-observations of cosmos became more detailed and sophisticated so did problems with Aristotle's cosmology
Tycho Brahe
-Danish astronomer
-founded and operated European observatory near Copenhagen
+Designed, built, and calibrated new instruments
+changed observational practice, waiting bodies throughout orbit rather than at certain points
+observed Cassiopia Nova and Comet of 1577, demonstrating heavens changeable, rather than prefect (as Aristotle had predicted and crystal spheres couldn't exist)
+observations and data later aided Johannes Kepler in devleopment of his law of planetary motion
Nicolo Tartaglia
-In Veince
-Mathematician challenged Aristotle's ideas about paths of projectiles
*first time laws that govern heaven, govern earth
Johannes Kepler
-In Copenhagen
-replaces Brahae when he leaves Royal Observatory
+Tartaglia shown movement of projectiles on earth had same curved motion as heavenly bodies
+Brahe's data demonstrated heavens changeable and theory of crystal spheres impossible
+Kepler uses data complied by Brahe, discovered heavenly bodies moved according to specific and observable natural laws
-Kepler's Laws
+Plantetary orbit are elliptical with sun at one of focal points
+Speed of planet varies so radius to sun sweeps out equal areas in equal amounts of time
+length of time required to revolve around sun is propotional to long distance of its orbital ellipse
*Heavens are predictable because laws apply to earth as well as heavens=send people to moon by predicting planet movement)
-First to:
+correctly explain planetary motion (founder of celestical mechanics)
+describe precise, verifiable and universal natural laws
+develop mathematical foundation of calculus
Galileo Galilei
-used scientific method to show that natural laws in heaven also operate on earth
+mthode recreated naturally-occuring phenomena in controlled setting so variables could be eliminated and precise measurements taken. Hypothees about phenomena can be tested and confirmed
+first to use refracting telescope for scientific discovery and used it to collect data that confirmed Copernicus heliocentric system:
=discovered moon has craters: other matter can crash=not perfect
=found Jupiter has moons:bodies revolve around other bodies
=discovered sun has spots:planets not perfect
=obesereved that Venus has phases (just like moon):revolve around sun
+Conducted earthly experiments:
=found pull of gravity is independent of object's mass (leaning tower of Pisa experiment)=law of constant acceleration (gravitational constant)
=developed more precise ways of measuring time (using pendulums and water clocks)
+introduced objectivity into science, minimializing direct physical and sensory experience in recording of data, minimilizing personal bais of investigator
Development of Formal Thought and rationalism
-Francis Bacon
+Father of inductive reasoning
+denounced universities for repeating Aristotelian concepts without understanding and thinking them through
+Induction is logic of scientific discovery (specific to general principal)
-Rene Descartes
+stressed discovering truth using deductive reasoning
+point out bais in what he learned from experience
+searched for single self-evident truth from which he could deductively find other truths (general principal applied to specific)
Sir Issac Newton
-finally destructed medieval unverise
-Principia Mathematica book, revised Keplers laws into complete mathematical picture of solar system
+Laws of Motion
=Law of interia
~body in motion stays in motion and body at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by force
=law of momentum
~velocity of object will change when acted upon by outside force, expressed by equation F=ma (F=force, m=mass, a=acceleration) change in velocity/period of time
=Law of reaction
~for every action(force) there is an equal and opposite reaction (explains both lift and thrust)
+Mathematical model of gravity
=law of gravity
~gravitational force of two objects for each other is directly proportional to product of their masses and inversely related to square of distance between them
~gravitational force gets greater when bodies get closer and mass gets greater, same is true inversly
~relationship works well except at very high velocities (near speed of light) or very large masses. Took Einstein's Theory of Relativity to work out these problems (E=mc2)
Scientific Revolution Achievements
-creation of new model of universe
-formulation of Scientific method (2 aproaches to knowledge)
+inductive(emperical) and deductive (rational)
-rejection of traditional belief in magic, astrology, and witches (18th century)
-reminder that all traditional wasn't trusted, and authority was to be questioned (even that of the Church)
-change in belief system: if universe wasn't created with us in center, maybe we weren't purpose for universe?
-notion that universe operates accordingly to fixed laws/principals; there is natural order to it