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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
people who destroy images or symbols of religion, ect.
-church invovled in politics
+ political power passed on through illegitimate sons of clergy
=excommunication threatened to secular Two Swords Doctrine (seperating the church and state)
+thrown out of churh meant there would be no salvation for them as they wouldn't be able to recieve sacraments
-Transubstination (physical transformation of bread and wine into body and blood of Jesus)
+considered miracle of Catholic mass
+Protestants questioned mean of maintaing Church control over christians.
+Reformers questioned validity of doctrine on bibilical grounds as obession over miracles took away spirituality where people needed to go back to faith
-Doctrine of Papal Infalliablity questioned
+Reformers believed all could interpert Bible
+Bible was ultimate spirtual authority, not the Chuch
-Validity of granting indulgences
+reformers questioned means of rasing money to increase Church's political power
+John Tetzel, "Treasure of Merit" wrote that there existed a body of extra virtuous works by Jesus, Mary, and Saints. If "granted" an indulgence by the Church. Some of these good works credits transformed from treasury to one's own spiritual "account"
+their underlining philosophy was that salvation was achieved through good works
+Reforms felt that the Church was corrupt and sought money
other issues
-war, famines, and plagues created social conditions that the Church wasn't adequately responding to, and in some case, was causign or exacerbating
-rebirth of humanism moved focus from church as only means of salvation, and emphasized human ability to reason
-printing press made education more avaliable to emerging middle class, decreasing its reliance of Church as authority
Desidence Erasmus
-Wrote In Praise of Folly
+recommended that the only way to achieve happiness and salvation is through truely living of Jesus and Saints.."you will not die badly if you live well."
-Started ball rolling for Martin Luther's Protestant refomation
Praise of Folly
-On Theologians:study relgion and interpertation of scripture
+they are arrogant and touchy b/c they didn't want to be criticized
+rise up to defend their ideas and "force" others to take back critism
+use the label "heretic" to frighten and intimidate others
+self-righteous, seeing themselves as above all others
+bury their ideas in wordplay leaving themselves many "holes they can run to"
-On monks
+their prayers and rituals are empty and without meaning except for self-love and self-righteousness
+they are illeterate and don't understand what they denounce
+take pride in begging and squalor, thinking this makes them like Jesus
-On Christians
+cling to superstious belief about magical power of statues and icons to bring them material, selfish gainse
+cling to pleasures of life as long as possible and then try to buy their way into heaven or try to buy a clean state so they can begin a new round of debauchery
+think that merely reciting a certain prayer or groups of prayers will bring them happiness
-On priests
+tolerate and even encourage delusions because of own potential gain from them (selling indulgences, selling relics, and icons, charging fees for services)
Hans Holbein
-court artist for Henry VIII
-illustrated drawings In Praise of Folly
-did reformation pictures
Martin Luther
-Justification by Faith:
+central point of contention between himself and Church was his belief that justification (salvation) could be attained by faith in Jesus Christ alone and not by performing good works
+believed that one should preform good work, but these acts weren't helpful in achieving salvation. Faith provides conscience that makes good works as neccesary as food and water in ruling our bodies
On Papal Power
(Martin Luther)
-outlined ways that Church sheltered itself from critism and reform
+It declared temporal power is subordinate to spiritual power and had no jursidiction over spiritual power (kings subordinate to spiritual power)
+When scripture was used to criticize, the Church objected that only Pope may interpret scripture
+when temporal powers threatened to have a council, Church declared that only Pope may summon a council
Interpertation of Bible and Nature of Clergy (Martin Luther)
-Argued that there was no support for doctrine of Papal infallibility, asserting that when the "keys to kingdom" were given to Peter, they were given to entire body of Christians. Thus every christian is priest through Baptism.
+most important difference between Protestant and Catholic as well as good works won't get you to heaven
-Being ordained a pope or bishop carries no special spiritual authority, thus, cleargy fill no more public service function.
-If group of Christians lived in a place where no cleargy was available, they would be justified in naming one of their own to perform ritual functions
Martin Luther
-condemned as heretic by Pope Leo III
-summoned to Diet of Worms
-apoligized for harsh tone of writings, but said he couldn't reject majority of them. His quote, "Unless I am convinced by proofs from scripture or by plain and clear reason and arguments, I can and will not retract, for it is neither safe nor wise to do anything against my conscience. Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen."
-Emperor Charles V issued Edict of Worms declaring him an outlaw
-Went into exile under protection of Fredrick the Wise, Elector of Saxony
John Calvin
-born in Noyon, France
-son of notary public
-scholar and enterd university in Paris at age 14 to prepare for priesthood
-father excommunicated, where Calvin was forced to leave seminary and study law
-had conversion experience which resulted in leaving Church
-began Institutes and founded Geneva Colony (thrown out for being too rigid but asked to return-he stayed for rest of his life)
Ideas put forth in the Institues (John Calvin)
-On Predestination
+defines predestination as notion that God adopts some for salvation and others to damnation and this is determined before one is born. His argument:
=for God, there is no past and future, all is present
=so all things past and future are known to God
=therefore, destines of all creatures are foreordained by God
+dismisses notion/argument that knowledge of predestination will result in laziness and wickedness. One's behavior reflect's one's status-so if one believes wickedly, it is seen as evidence that one is of damned, not saved (elect). He quotes Augustine-"must that which is evident be denied because that which is concealed can't be comprehended?"
+"Predestination we call the eternal decree of God, by which he has determined, in himself, what he would have to become of every individual of mankind."
-Ecclesiastical Ordiances (Laws of the Church)
+Duties of Elders:
=watch over conduct of all individuals
=lovingly admonish those who err and recommend discipline
=meet weekly to adress "disorders" in the church
+Rules for the village:
=entire household attends Sunday sermons
=must attend weekday preaching (unless one has a good excuse)
=bring servants to sermon
=church is closed between sermons to discourage superstitous activatites (worshipping idols)
-obedience to God superseds obedience to secular rulers
Counter Reformation
-Catholic Curch didn't remain stagnant when Protestant Reformation began. Many Catholics recognized need for reform. Some interpreters suggest Catholicism merely reacted to protestant efforts. Others argure the Counter Reformation from a sincere effort on part of Church to reform abuses
-Pope Leo X (Giovanni de Medici), responding to concerns about Luther's 95 theses, approved, a council known as Oratory of Divine Love to consider reforms. It wa Leo who excommunicated Luther and seriously underestamated power and resolve of reformers. Several new monastic orders were created in order to spread reforms throughout European Church:
+Theatrines: charged with improving education of clergy
+capuchins: spread the return of Franciscan ideals of poverty and preaching
+Ursuline Nuns: charged with Christian education of women
Jesuits(Society of Jesus)
-monastic order founded by Ignatius Loyola, converted Spanish military officer, in order to defend and spread Catholic beliefs and reclaim lands lost to Protestants often militant and used military titles
+Catholic Doctrine
+Humanistic Classical teaching
+Good Manners
+Adequate food to exercise
-Loyola and Jesuits brought back Inquistion, aimed at identifying and "curing" heretics
Council of Trent
-group organized by Pope Paul III
-most sporadically to enact reforms
-attempt to reaffirm certain Church doctrines, address needed reforms to address problem or Protestanism
+miraculous Power of priesthood
+7 Sacraments
+importance of both faith and good works in salvation
+Both scripture and pope as authorites on theology
+Observance of clerical vows
+use of Inquistion as instrument for arresting and trying heretics
-enacted following reforms:
+ended sale of Church officals and established miniumn age of 14 for holding official positions
+reform of monastic moral life, keeping concubines banned and illegitmat sons could no longer hold churh postions. Monks were forbidden from preaching without liscense from bishop.
+Creation of new seminaries for training and educating of priests (many of whom were bibically illeterate)
+Bishop holding more than one major benefice (cathedral church) should resign all but one
+Church supervision of all printed matter (1st list of approved and prohibited books). Prohibited books included Machiavelli, Boccachio, and vernacular New Testament. Even today, Catholic books carry notitions "nihil obstat" (nothing conflicts) or "imprimatur" (it may be printed) to inform Catholics of Church's position on book
+Created standard catechism for religious education and standard missal for worship
In the end...
-Protestant religions became firmly established throughout Europe. New Protestant denominations began to spring from original groups as disagreements arose over interpertation of scripture
-Catholic Church made substantial efforts at reform while reaffirming basic beliefs, doctrines, and rituals
-Conflicts, often violent, between Catholic and Protestants continued. Secular rulers sometimes used religous/theological conflict in service of their political ends