Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/94

Click to flip

94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Thales
everything is made of water
Heraclitus
everything is in flux. Unity of opposites
Pythagoras
-brought math to philosophy
-started the pythagoreans who worshipped numbers
Xenophanes
questioned human views of god
Paramenides
believed everything came from something else, nothing just appears
Empedocles
four elements: earth, air, fire, water
Atomists
undivisible particles called atoms
Socrates-general (3)
-most influential of the golden age
-Socratic method
-Rebellious (gadfly) and executed for it
Plato- general (4)
-used socratic method
-better to suffer wrong than commit it
-forms and ideals vs our world of flux
-arts=distraction
Aristotle- general (5)
-school and accomplished alum
-idea:____
-disagreed with ____ on____
-key question:____
-everything sort of relates to ____.
-started school: the Lyceum. tutored Alexander the Great
-saving the experiences: observation+experience=key
-no world of forms
-What is being?
-Golden Mean
Aristotle-Achievements (6)
mapped out ____: ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____.
mapped out basic fields of inquiry: logic, physics, economics, meterology, rhetoric, ethics
Aristotle-government
gov=enabling state, enabling the people
Aristotle-tragedy/drama
catharsis= cleansing by pity and terror
drama should have a beginning, middle, and end
Who did Aristotle prefigure?
the empiricists
what group of thinkers did plato prefigure?
the rationalists
Cynics-general (4)
-"like a dog"
-first of four new schools
-Antisthenes was progenitor
-no government, property, marrige, religion
Antisthenes (3)
-who was he a deciple of?
-started cynics
-deciple of Socrates
-dropped out of society to live the simple life
Diogenes (4)
-more famous than Antisthenes
-Deliberately shocked people
-lived like a dog-"cynic"
-"I am a citizen of the world" (first cosmompolitan)
Sceptics (4)
What did they say?
What did this belief mean in terms of their actions?
first ___ in philosophy.
Who started them?
-"nothing can be proved"
-thus very accepting of other cultures
-first relativists in philosophy
-started by Pyrhho
Timen of Philus (3)
-Whose student was he?
-What was one of his beliefs; to what group did he belong?
-Every argument/proof came from unproven premises
-sceptic
-student of Pyrhho, the first sceptic
Epicureans (5)
-est by Epicurus
-liberate people from fear of death and life "Death is nothing to us"
-be happy, but "live unknown." avoid human mess.
-Atomists, "the gods don't want to meddle in human affairs
-Denounced by Christianity
The Epicureans were like what modern belief?
-____and____ ____.
scientific and liberal humanism
Who founded Stoicism? list three beliefs
what are emotions, according to them?
-Zeno
-no authority higher than reason, nature.
-emotions=cognitive judgements,forms of knowledge
-suicide is ok when it's rational
St. Augustine-early life
rejected christianity as a teen, went on a philosophical quest (Manichaeism to skepticism to Plato), returned to "Catholic Christianity." Brought new ideas with him.
CONFESSIONS (3)
-who did he anticipate in what idea about what?
-_____
-_____
-1st autobiography
-"Lord make me chaste, but not yet"
-anticipated kant: time is an adjective, not a noun
St Augustine- (3) 2important beliefs and a fact
-predestination: screwed the heritics
-more internal philosphical quest
-last great philosopher before the dark ages
THE CITY OF GOD (2)
God's kingdom-like the forms, eternal
our world is shifty.
-beliefs result of the fall of rome
-written by St Augustine
When the German Barbarians ravaged Europe, where did many philosophical works end up?
The islamic world (mainly Aristotle's stuff)
What sea did the people of Europe cross to escape the Germans?
The Irish sea
John Scotius Erigena (John the Scot)(3)
-like Augustine, tried to find a way to combine christianity and philosophy (but less psycho)
-since you can't arrive at false conclusions through correct reason, it must be divine reason
-"no one, including god can understand their own nature"
Abelard (3)
-Mideval Philosopher
-Loved Héloise but got castrated by her brothers
-was concerned with whether or not universals actually exist or whether they were unattainable. Red and the tree.
Realists
like plato, said that the ideals exist and are the model for everything
Nominalists
like Aristotle, said that universals are useful for describing things, but not really in existence
What are the three arguments for the existence of god?
TELEOLOGICAL- universe has design, so someone must have designed it.
COSMOLOGICAL-well the earth's here, so it must have been created by something
ONTOLOGICAL-imagine the greatest, but it's not really the greatest because it doesn't exist, so the greatist must exist
Midevial Renaissance-a return and 2 personalities.
-Aristotle's work returns
-Roger Bacon: Oxfordian who contributed to the trend of practical observation
-Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas(4)
-"official philosopher of the catholic church"
-assembled western thought and belief
-knowledge through sensory experience, sensory experience through god's creation
-Essence vs. Existence, eg the unicorn has essence, but it doesn't exist.
William of Ockham
-Knowledge through _____.
-_____
-knowldge through logical argugument and speculation
-"Ockham's Razor" simpler = better
Claudius Ptolemy(2)
-Ptolemaic system: earth is the center of the universe
-adopted by the catholic church
Nicolaus Copernicus(3)
Whose system did he disagree with?
-_____
-_____
-refuted the ptolematic system,saying that the sun was the center of the solar system
-waited until after his death to release it
-big church upset
Johannes Kepler
planets move in elipses, motion faster in some parts than in others
Galileo
-what was he condemned for?
-power and authority..._____
-asserted his beliefs that the earth rotates on its axis and orbits the sun, eventually condemned for them
-"Power and authority... should have no power in the truth-seeking activities of science"
Galileo: discoveries (6)
Thermometer, all bodies fall at the same rate, every projectile follows a parabola, pendulum + application in clocks, objects in motion stay in motion, OBJECTIVITY IN SCIENCE: you can't base discoveries off things that aren't concrete and undeniable
Isaac Newton: discoveries (3)
-analyzed constituent properties of light, invented calculus, worked out the law of gravitation
Niccolo Machiavelli (4)
-1st to ___
-what he concerned himself with
-jarring quote
-applies ___ to ___.
-1st to study objectively (how it really is)
-realities of politics: how people get, keep, and lose power.
-"it is much safer for a prince to be feared than loved"
-applies experimental science to politics
M. Nussbaum-What should human development reports include? (other than economics) (3)
-education
-health
-political access
M. Nussbaum-necessary conditions for human dignity (3)
-adequate health
-labor conditions
-political conditions
(even if a person is incapable of reason, they still have dignity)
Nussbaum on education (3)
-school should be tailored to the individual.
-special resources for the below average
-standardized testing ruins this
According to Nussbaum, what does one need to become a "citizen of the world?" (3)
-Factual knowledge (history of economy, religions, culture, etc)
-knowledge of another place (to avoid generalizing)
-Imagination (visualize someone else's situation)
According to Nussbaum and the Stoics, what freedom do nonhumans lack?
moral choice
What was Aristotle's school called and how was it different from Plato's Academy?
-The Lyceum
-Broader focus
What are Aristotle's four causes?
-material (what it's made of)
-efficient (How/who made it)
-formal (blueprint/intention)
-final (end, function)
Who was Aristotle's god? What was it?
-Thea
-pure perfection of thought
"Saving the Appearances"
tweak theory to explain what already is. Save theory from appearance
what were the key differences between Greece and China in Confucius' time?
Polis vs Empire
Individualism vs collectivism
Democracy vs Feudalism
What is one of the main differences between Plato and Confucius?
Plato- future, new republic
Confucius- Past, the rites
Sophists (3)
-Those "professing to know"
-Charged crazy money to teach rich kids
-enemies of plato and Aristotle
Who were the big three?
Plato, Socrates, Aristotle
What were Plato's 6 major works and what were they about?
-Apology (unexamined life)
-Phaedrus (love/beauty)
-Symposium (extended love, added opinion)
-Meno (you already know)
-Republic (ideals)
-Laws (pessimistic, focus on religion)
Plato-ideas ____?
make contact with the forms
Plato- Dialectic (3)
-logical disputation, how truth is arrived at
-in the myth of the cave, the prisoner's ascent is the dialectic
-must be instilled into the philosopher kings
Bee/gadfly/torpedo fish
-annoy/ numb people's thinking to spur deeper thinking
-plato and socrates
Myth of Metals
-Gold (philosopher kings)
-Silver (guardians)
-bronze (workers)
-plato
Tripartide soul
(Plato)
-reason=head (lusts after truth)
-spirit=middle (lusts after honor, glory
-appetites=bottom (lusts after appetites: food, drink, sex, etc.)
Hobbes
-how did he view everything?
-what school of thought did he invent?
-According to him, what causes societies?
-what is there without societies?
-what book did he write?
-Everything is a machine
-founded metaphysical materialism
-fear of death causes societies
-without society, you get "war of every man against every man"
-Authority can be individual or group with power from commonwealth
-chaos is worse than tyrrany
-LEVIATHAN
descartes
-1st ___
-What did he ask? (2)
-what method did he develop?
-what mathematical idea did he invent?
-One famous quote
-Why did he think god existed?
-1st modern philosopher
-"what can i know?"
-deduction:logical steps to new truth
-Cartesian Plane, coordinate geometry
-What evidence do we have that life isn't just a dream?
-higher spirit trying to decieve us?
-"I think, therefore I am"
-God exists because we have ideas about him
Rationalism: who invented it and what is it?
Descartes, knowledge only through reason.
Cartesian Dualism
two kinds of substance: mind and matter, subject and object, observer and observed, etc.
Spinoza (5 ideas)'
-views on god
-what was the body?
-how did he think we could understand the world?
-___
-___
-Deidication of nature:god is the world because how could god have any limits?
-body=soul in outward form
-achieve understanding of the world by applying mathematics to reality
-nothing happens by chance
-no real difference between good and evil
Leibnitz (4)
-nickname
-views on truths
-discoveries (2)
-thoughts on god and the world
-"supreme Polymath"
-divided truths into two groups: truths of reason and truths of fact
-discovered calculus and kinetic energy
-"god created the best world possible, one with free will"
Analytic statements
-____
-____
Who's idea were they?
-true without any need for examination
-opposite of synthetic statements, which depend on deduction
(Leibnitz)
Synthetic statements
-what are they and who's idea
True through experimentation
(leibnitz)
"Sufficient Reason"
What was it and whose idea was it?
"for everything that is the case, there must be some reason why it's the case"
(Leibnitz)
Monads (3)
Whose idea?
What were they?
What did they include?
-everything is made of them
-points of view in relation to the rest of the world
-human mind, god, (they vary in intensity)

(Leibnitz)
Pre-established harmony
-whose idea and what was it?
god made everything to live together
(Leibnitz)
Charioteer Analogy
-Charioteer=reason
-white horse=spirit
-black horse=appetite

(plato)
Pythagoreans(4)
-what were they?
-____
-What did they think of physical reality?
-which of their beliefs has since been disproven?
-religious society
-Questioned the authority of secular rulers
-Physical reality is really mathematical, but abstracted by the mind
-all numbers are rational (WRONG)
Plato on Mathematics(2)
-"let noone enter here who is ignorant of mathematics"
-"Geometry aims at the knowledge of the eternal"
Non-Euclidian Geometry: 5 basic principles
-draw a straight line from any two points
-cut into indefinite line segments
-circle has a center and a positive radius
-all right angles are equal
-a straight line is a straight line
Philosophers should be "_____ for humanity"
-Nussbaum, "Who needs Philosophy"
lawyers
Capabilities Approach(3)

("Who needs philosophy" -Nussbaum)
-freedom of individuals, equal worth
-asks about distribution of resources, oppurtunities
-scrutiny of cultural tradition, source of unequal abilites
Why is there a need for cosmopolitanism today, according to Nussbaum? (2)
-too much blind nationalism (morally dangerous, subverts patriotism's worthy goals)
-we may need more cosmopolitan education. something more than basic human rights?
What stoic arguements for cosmopolitanism does Nussbaum cite? (4)
-local community is a random pick, but global community is where the obligations are
-Civic(study of humanity) education is education for a world citizenship
-no need to give up local identifications if you want a world citizenship (concentric circles)
-learn about the different to understand what is universal
According to Nussbaum, we _____ through cosmopolitan education (4)
-learn more about ourselves
-get better at national negotiation
-realize that we have a moral obligation to the rest of the world (not just to citizens of our own country)
-are less hypocritical in our education system. Values need to be universal, not limited to our own little sphere
According to Nussbaum, why is cosmopolitainism so difficult? (2)
-it's kind of like exile. No refuge in local truths and patriotism, just reason and love of humanity
-Cosmopolitanism isn't as colorful or passionate as patriotism. More imagination.
What are Nussbaum's four judgements involved in compassion?
-Judgement of seriousness (putting self in other's shoes)
-Judgement of nondesert (do they deserve this?)
-Judgement of similar possibilities (do we share this person's feelings, could this happen to us?)
-Eudaimonistic Judgement (Can this affect me?)
How does Nussbaum address the problem of a lack of compassion in the world? (4)
extension and education of compassion; within the limits of respect.
-balance between needs of humanity and needs of self
-education of human weakness while learning about potential pitfalls to understanding
-no overvaluing external goods
-terror can help make us aware
what are the two major themes of the Ashby Harper packet?
-Great privilege brings great responsibility
-students must represent school and values throughout life
What is Socrates on trial for in his apology?
corrupting the city and not believing in the gods
What are five major points of the apology?
-I'm innocent, the youth were only mimicing, I didn't teach them anything
-Gadfly: "the olympian victor makes you think yourselves happy, i make you happy"
-But now that you're accusing an innocent man, your fate will be worse
-There will be more to replace me
-"which of us goes to the better lot is known to no one, except the god"
According to Aristotle, what is the proper function of man?
to have a soul in conformity with a rational principle
What are Aristotle's three classes of good?
-external goods
-goods of the soul
-goods of the body
What is happiness, according to Aristotle?
the activity of the soul with conformity to virtue
What are Aristotle's two main types of virtue?
-intellectual virtue (product of experience and time
-moral virtue (product of habit)
how would Aristotle judge a virtue?
weiging pleasure vs pain