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60 Cards in this Set

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Francis Bacon
(1561-1623) he was well connected but from a poor family
-he gained a fanatical dislike for Aristotle, he thought Aristotle had all the facts and something had to be wrong with with his methods of inquiry if everything is right
-he rejected the contemplative aspect of science, he wanted to freshen their idea of scientific inquiry
Main Ideas
1. Philosophy of the natural world (duty of a christian to understand the natural world)
2. All men are mortal, therefore he is mortal because he is man
3. 4 idols of the mind (not to be intimidated by the history of Aristotle), science has to be useful and geared toward the improvement
-the more you master nature, you can then make nature do what you want
-wrote of a Utopia society
Rene Descartes
(1596-1650) French thinker
-corpuscular physics, tiny bodies that you cannot see, observed motion has an explanation, this was the centerpiece of his scientific system
-he was also unimpressed by aristotle, certain knowledge is impossible for human beings, so you shouldn't even bother
-he didn't want to retreat to skepticism
-encouraged people to clear their mind
-division between the mind and matter: physical universe of matter
-His Legacy: matter in motion, the universe is mechanical, God as a philosophical God.
Tycho Brahe
(1546-1601): danish astronomer, everything he did he did it by naked eye observation, discovery of a new star
-Tychonian system: planets are circling the sun, but the sun still circles the earth, this system laid out the problems of the old system
Michel de Montaigne
(1533-1592): he received the cutting edge of the humanist education
-he retired early and began to write, he was a witness to the period of wars in france
-he was also a witness to wars of religion, he did not believe catholicism was not the only way to heaven
-Essais: he crafted the genre called the essay
-he was skeptical of human beings "Man is so weak in his nature, he cannot be sure he is being dishonest"
-he also critiqued new world explorations
Johannes Kepler
(1571-1630): openly in favor of Copernicus' theory
-the Providential Call: called to demonstrate the truth that the universe is a rational place
-the sun as a metaphor of God: there is order than can be rationally understood
-Worked with Brahe
-First Law: that planetary objects orbit in an ellipse: the sun is one of the foci to the orbits
Three laws on planetary motion (model that was more accurate that anyone had ever seen before)
1. planets travel through equal space, equal time
2. planets travel in ellipses
3. the length of their orbit is proportional to their distance from the sun
Galileo Galilei
(1564-1642) Galileo grew up in florence
-law of falling bodies >any object will fall at the same speed (combated Aristotelian physics)
-invented the telescope and sold them to the Venetian government
-Publishes the Starry Messenger: sells out
-criticism: he said the bible cannot be wrong but people can misinterpret what the bible has to say, the bible teaches us how to get to heaven, not about the heavens
-work on sun spots (controversy)
Isaac Newton
-the young genius, studied at cambridge
-inventing calculus, he taught himself optics and invented the refracting telescope in 1671
-The Principia Mathematical: foundational text of quantitate mechanics > motion can be precisely described
-Three Laws of Motion
1. law of inertia
2. change of motion is proportional to
3. every action there is an equal reaction
-After newton: he provided a model that can account for all motion, predictability of phenomena in the future
-increasing expectation that the scientific model would lead to things becoming more predictable
Nicolas Copernicus
(1473-1543): Polish canon, physician and astronomer
-heliocentric model : very controversial
-there was little initial controversy but as time went on, he met resistance to the naturalized philosophy of Ptolematics
-turf battle between the natural philosophers and the mathematicians
(1689-1755): from an old noble family, he poked fun at french customs
-The Spirit of the Laws: he was the father of modern political science, he argued for the modern separation of powers
Denis Diderot
(1713-1784): from the upper middle class, made bold statements on materialism
"To advance the causes of enlightenment"
-made a statement on evolutionary theory
-wrote the Encylopedia
The Spirit of the Laws
-this is a work by Montesquieu: he was the father of modern political science, rejected the classical tripatite formal division of government
-argued for a separation of powers
(1694-1778): upper middle class french family, drawn to his free thinking uncle
-he left france for england, published the Philosophical Letters on the benefits of a non absolutist monarchy
-published an encyclopedia
-Candide: funny book that isn't necessarily that funny, he questioned the idea that this is the best world, he asked (what about the pain? is this really the best we can do?)

Legacy: in touch with everyone, he corresponded with Fredrick the Great of Prussia, got involved in getting people out of unjust trials
Jean Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1722): early life lived in Geneva
-wrote music and philsophy, wrote a number of operas, he was a famous artistic figure
-Moment of Illumination: a discourse on the sciences and the arts (science and reason doesn't always make things better)
-Discourse on the Origin of Inequality (Natural and Artificial), man is free and pure before a greater society
-Legitimate authority came from the people alone, people have the right to rebel
-Women's Education: should be relative to men, to supplement men
Legacy: once property is created, it cannot be reversed, civil society provides peace for all and the protection of property
-civil society is an unequal social contract from the beginning (never a level playing field)
The Social Contract
"man was born free, and everywhere he remains in chains"
-in the state of nature, all men are created equal
-no one should be rich enough to buy another
The Diplomatic Revolution
the reversal of long standing alliances in europe
-france and austria
-great britain and prussia
-constantly shifting alliances throughout the 18th century
-this was the precursor to the Seven Years War
Madame de Pompadour
woman with strong intellectual and political influence in the french court
Adam Smith
(1723-1790): Inquiry... Wealth of Nations
-in great opposition to mercantilism, the issues were productivity and labor and how labor would be used in different sectors of the economy
-the "invisible" hand would guide economic activity
The Wealth of Nations
-economics of empire debate: how could colonies be profitable and to whom
-slave trade raised issues of humanitarianism, individual rights, and natural law >> these things did not create real economic health
General prosperity could be obtained by allowing the "invisible hand" to guide economic activity, individuals should pursue their own interests
King Frederick William I of Prussia
(1713-1740) concerned with building a great army, the prussian army grew from 30,000 to 85,000, the fourth largest army in Europe
-he increased taxes and streamlined the collection of such taxes, he made prussia a strong state
Frederick the Great
(1740-1786): raised his country to the status of major power,
-an enlightened absolutist who supported a series of social reforms, prohibited torture of accused criminals, established elementary schools
The War of the Austrian Succession
-France and Spain fought on the side of Prussia, hoping to reverse some of the loses they sustained in the Treaty of Utrecht
-Britain and the Dutch Republic sided with Austria
Maria Teresa
(1740-1780) the empress of Austria, enlightened absolutism, centralizing the administration in Vienna, increasing taxation, professional standing army, tightening control of the church, statewide education, instituted a new more liberal criminal code
Louis XVI
-took the throne at age 19, had a problem in funding the American Revolution
-encountered the problem of war and debt and the need for creditors to fund a war, wanted to protect the vast wealth
Andre-Hercule de Fleury
-french cardinal who served as the chief minster for Louis XV
The Jacobite Rebellion
(1688-1746) a series of uprisings occurring in England, Scotland, and Ireland, attempting to restore the Stuart kings to the throne
The Seven Years War
(1756-1763) Pruissia and Britain against Austria, France, Russia, and Sweden
The Treaty of Paris (1763)
-brought the seven years war to an end, france cedes all territory east of the mississippi to Britain
-Spain cedes florida to Britain, but receives Louisiana territory and New Orleans
-Havana and Manila returned to Spain
Catherine the Great
(1762-1796) an enlightened absolutist, greatest achievement through war and diplomacy, in 1769, she renewed Peter the Great's push to secure a warm water port in the Black sea
Pugachev’s Rebellion
(1773-1775) massive peasant revolt that threatened Moscow
The Triangle Trade
-the interconnected nature of the atlantic trade route, growing demand in europe
-European Leg- demand pushed slave practices up
-African Leg- slaves tossed overboard if they died
-American Leg- ships were empty so they traded back colonial goods for
-each leg of the trade made every part equally important
The Middle Passage
-The middle leg of the triangle trade through the Americas > this leg stretched from the east coast of South America up to North America
-The transportation of slaves from Africa across the Atlantic to the New World
The French and Indian War
-Skirmishes from 1754- George Washington at Fort necessity > surrenders
-the British were struggling at this time, the indians sought an alliance with the French
-The British Dominate and take over Quebec and Montreal
The American Revolution
-British accrued a significant amount of debt after involvement in American revolution, fought all on
-Stamp Act (to get back from their debt from fighting the war), this was reasonable from the European standpoint > the colonists didn't see it this way
-Intolerable Acts > led to war, completely closed the port of Boston, quartering troops also pissed people off
-Declaration of Independence: all men are created equal > this is Locke, if the government fails to serve its purpose then its no point, break that cycle, people have the right to replace it
-French help the colonists in the war > much of the reason for the American victory
-Cornwallis surrenders at York town > the British army lost too much by this point and it no longer made any sense for them to spend time and energy there anymore.
The Boston Tea Party
-the British government claimed a monopoly of the east india trading company
-anyone who wanted Tea had to pay monopoly prices, people in Britain saw this as Intolerable and so they instituted the intolerable acts
The Declaration of Independence
-this is the Locke ideology, if the government does not fulfill its purpose, than replace it
The Battle of Yorktown
(Oct 18, 1781) Cornwalis surrenders
-they lost so much money so the battle was no longer worth it
-some were sympathetic (Whig Party)
-we should let them go because they don't want to be governed anymore
Louis XVI
(1774-1792) unprepared to do what needed to be done
-French support for the american revolution
-sold public office to fund their war in the American revolution
Tennis Court Oath
during the French revolution,

"never to separate, and to meet wherever circumstances demand, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and affirmed on solid foundations."

it was a display of power by the people over the monarch during the
French revolution, very powerful move by the National Assembly
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
part of the Assembly acts, August 1789, the nation is sovereign not the king, through representatives, the kingdom expresses their liberty
The Jacobins
Radical French political group that came into existence during the French Revolution, executed the French king, and sought to remake French culture
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Issued by the French National Assembly in 1789, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy provided that all bishops and priests should be subject to the authority of the state. Their salaries were to be paid out of the public treasury, and they were required to swear allegiance to the new state, making clear they served France rather than Rome. The Assembly’s aim was to make the Catholic Church of France a truly national and civil institution.
The Sansculottes
were mostly the working class, and were for the most part members of the poorer classes of the Third Estate, or leaders of the populace, but during the Reign of Terror, public functionaries and persons of good education styled themselves citoyens sans-culottes.
Edmund Burke
Author of Reflections on the Revolution in France. He declared the revolution in France a monstrous crime against the social order
Thomas Paine
was a pamphleteer from England who emigrated to the Colonies and was extremely influential in garnering support for the American Revolution with his pamphlet Common Sense. He was also influential during the French Revolution and was seen as an ally by the Girondins, and thus an enemy by Robespierre. He was imprisoned in Paris and after release he wrote, the Age of Reason and Agrarian Justice. During the Napoleon era he was invited back to America by Thomas Jefferson and died in New York City
The Battle of Valmy
The Battle of Valmy, also known as the Cannonade of Valmy, was a tactically indecisive artillery engagement, but strategically it ensured the survival of the French Revolution. As such, and despite its minor size, it appears as one of the most decisive battles in history, as well as one of the first times a mix of old soldiers and raw volunteers were able to successfully oppose the highly respected professional Prussian and Austrian armies.

Outcome: French monarchy was abolished and the First French Republic proclaimed. The battle of Valmy was really the first victory of an army inspired by citizenship and nationalism and the death of the absolute monarchies.
The Committee of Public Safety
1. to seize control of the revolution and 2. to prosecute all the revolutionaries enemies
-Danton, Robespierre, and Marat were some of the key leaders in this 12 man committee
-this was all during the Period of Terror
Maximilian Robespierre
-best known and influential figure of the French Revolution
-he was at the center of the Reign of Terror which ended with his arrest and execution in 1794
-his supporters called him the Incorruptible while his adversaries called him the Tyrant
-he was the president of the committee
The Thermidorian Reaction
-a revolt during the French Revolution, it was triggered by a vote in the committee to remove Robespierre from rule and also his followers who were considered the most radical
-the end of the most radical phase of the French Revolution
The Directory
-body of five directors chosen by the legislative body who came into power after the Committee of Public Safety was replaced, the reign of terror was over and so these men were appointed to take over
-This would lead into the hiring of Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte
-there was continuous war in France and so it almost made sense for the French to appoint a general to lead them
-invaded Egypt so as to threaten the British colonies,
-The Battle of Trafalgar- French naval defeat in the English Channel
-1808-Invades Spain, he quickly overruns the incompetent Spanish army, setting up a puppet government, many little wars popped up, irregular tactics (one of the most brutal conflicts in human history) Napoleon never actually completely conquered the Spanish

-Continental system- trade embargo for Britain, all the puppet governments were supposed to stay away from the British trade and so the British did the same right back at the French

-Napoleon: assembled 600,000 men and invades Russia, but the Russians use traditional tactics, Retreats from Moscow after the fire in the old city, the cold Russian winter got the best of the army on the retreat, (22,000 men are left when they leave Russia)

1814- he is forced to abdicate
The Napoleonic Code
uniformity and individualism

-It confirmed the abolition of feudal privileges of all kinds:
-Conditions were also set for property rights: the drafting of contracts, leases, and stock companies
-the importance of the paternal authority, women as subordinates, natural supremacy of the husband
The Continental System
-Napoleon: an embargo around europe because of Britain, it hurt the mainland europe
-Napoleon lacked the necessary resources to attack mainland England and so he resorted to a trade embargo and an attack of British colonies
The Battle of Trafalgar
-October 21, 1805
-naval battle fought on the English channel, the French navy sustained a terrible defeat
-from this battle alone, Napoleon knew he could not challenge the British navy
-this also led to a rift with Spain which would lead to the many small battles that sustained a small amount of causalities
The Russian Campaign
-Spring of 1812 > Napoleon headed into Russia, all the way into Moscow where Napoleon took over the city, the Russians torched the city when they took over and burned most of the city
-this led to the exile and retreat home of Napoleon and his troops only to return with nearly 12,000 troops (300,000 to begin with)
The Battle of the Nations
October 1813: fought near Leipzig, the allies deal the French a resounding defeat
-this was one of the last battles fought by Napoleon leading to his abdication in 1813, Napoleon dies in 1821
The Battle of Waterloo
-June 15-18 1815: this was Napoleon's last battle, fought after her was in exile and came back, he was stopped by the armies of Britain and Russia, after this battle, they shipped Napoleon off to St. Helena in the South Atlantic
Toussaint L’Ouverture
-former slave "the one who opened the way", him and his soldiers were allied with the French army
-he broke power of his rivals becoming the statesman of the revolution, in 1801, Toussaint set up a constitution swearing allegiance to France also making sure their affairs in St. Domingue would discontinue (the most beneficial island of the French)
-his constitution abolished slavery, reorganized the military, and established Christianity as the state religion
Georges Danton
(1759-1794) leading figure in the early French revolution, first president of the Committee of Public Safety, he was guillotined for leniency towards the revolution
Jean-Paul Marat
-radical journalist and politician from the French Revolution, his journalism was known for his fiery language in attacking the current government
-alongside Robisperre and Danton, he was the other great powerful figure in the Public Safety effort.
-in his journalistic ventures, he was known for his fiery style, his ability to stick up for the poor in society,
Abbé Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès
-leader who articulated the case of the Third Estate, he was a radical member of the clergy, he insisted that the Third Estate should have twice as many members as the first and second, this led to the formation of the National Assembly leading to the Oath of the Tennis Court, reframing the government in the name of the people (National Assembly)