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7 Cards in this Set

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Existentialism
-philosophical point of view that seeks to answer the following question:
+How do you live in an irrational, aritrary, and inherently meaningless world?
-Movement, which began in the early 19th century, became very influential in late 19th and early 20th centuries, especially in literature
Four Compononents of Existentialism
-Moral Individualism:
+reject idea that there is one ethical standard that is the same for everyone. One must choose one's own way without the arch of universal objective standards. There is no objectivie, rational basis upon which moral desicion can be made
-Subjectivity:
+attrive at truth by acting on one's own convictions and personal experience. Therefore, it's better to understand a situation from the point of view of another individual who is invovled in that situation than it's to act as an impartial and objective observer. Avoid systematic thinking, focus on the perspective of individual agent
-Choice and commitment:
+Choice is most prominent and central theme in existentialism. Humanities primary distinction is the freedom to choose. Choice is an inescapable part of human experience; even the refusal to choose is a choice. But this freedom of choice invovlves commitment and responsibility. Because we are free to choose our own paths, we must accept the risk and responsibility of following our commitment wherever it leads
-Dread and Anxiety:
+ It's spiritually crucical to recognize that one experiences a feeling of general apprehension or dread
+ Kierkegaard interpereted this as God's way of calling each individual to make a committment to a personally valid way of life. Later, existentialists, however, completely rejected the notion of a god
+Heidegger maintainted that this anxiety leads to the individuals confrontation with nothingness and with the impossiblility of finding ultimate justification for the choices one makes
+Satire used the term "nausea" to describe the feelings that occur when we reorganize the total freedom of choice that confronts each of us at every moment
Soren Kierkegaard
-Fundamental Questions:
+What is the point of man's life?
+What sense can people make out of human existence?
+What is the purpose of human events?
-Socratic Paradox:
+Learning is impossible. Either one learns what one already knows (which isn't learning or one has no way of learning anything, since the truth would be unrecognized
+Poses that learning, when it occurs, is a miraculous transformation (caused by God). We all remain totally ignorant unless we are transformed in this way-we can know nothing for certain by ourselves-in fact, we can't be sure that God exists to transform us
-The Human Predicament
+Quest for knowledge is unavoidable, but we have no means to do it
+Two Choices:
=Remain in our darkness as skeptics: doubting certaintity of everything
=Take leap into absurdity: accept belief blindly and irrationally to have faitht that some agent will act to bring us enlightenment
-Kirkegard didn't claim to know truth-merely he was posing questionns, thoughts and ideas. Each person must find his or her own way.
Fredrich Nietzsche
-Rejected supernaturalism, stating that God of tradition was dead and no longer played a role in the lives of serious people
-Humans must create a meaningful world through their own wills and then be brave enough to live with and revel in the results
Edmund Husserl
-Using Cogito Ego Sum as a basic intuitive truth, suggested that we find meaning in our lives by reducing our experiences to their essences. No supernatural therories are required
Martin Heidegger
-There is no being beyond begining in the world. The realization of our own deaths make us aware of our morality, responsibility, freedom, authencity and place in the world-this is the source of our meaning-my life is mine and I am responsible for it. I am freeto act in time and make life meaningful int he face of death, which can come at any time and for no reason
J.P. Sartre
-We are trapped in existence, living in a completely meaningless world
-When we realize that the world is unintelligle, that we are unable to withdraw from contact with it and that we need some principal or order-we are ready for the existensentialist message:
+We are overpowered by the nausea of existence-our way is arbitrary and any other would do just as well.
+we are confronted with a "dreadful freedom" to choosed our beliefs and way of living, knowing is no certain guide to make the choice, no way to avoid the choice and no way to escape the consquences of the choice