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48 Cards in this Set

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What distinguishing physical characteristics of ziggurats sets them apart structurally from pyramids?
Ziggurats are flat on top whereas pyramids come to a point. A pyramid has an interior that was mainly used as a tomb for dead pharaohs and other important figures. A ziggurat is empty inside and only the top of the stucture is used for temples.
Early civilizations altered objects for other reasons beside practical use. What was made and what are three early examples?
Art was created for reasons beyond practical use. Three early exampls are the Woman of Willendorf sculpture, cave paintings at Lascaux and Dordogne, and Bison clay relief structure on a cave wall in France.
Why were feminine scultures so small in the BCE era?
To make it easier for people to carry around.
Why was Egypt relatively a stable society to other civilizations?
Egypt had a relatively secure situation; they were along the Nile, separated to the west by the Libyan Desert and to the east by the Sinai Peninsula.
What defined the Neolithic period from the Paleolithic period?
Unlike the Paleolithic period, the Neolithic period was defined by the development of agriculture and the mining of minerals.
When did the prehistoric age end?
Varies for each civilization.
Define civilization.
A society with: 1. Strong agricultural base capable of supporting an urban center, 2. Well organized political entities; 3. Development of arts and intellectual attitudes.
What does prehistoric mean?
Prehistoric means before writing.
What determines the beginning of history?
The beginning of history is determined by the first sign of written records.
Why is history said to have begun at Sumer?
History begins at Sumer because the Sumerians were undoubtedly the first to have a functioning system of writing.
When did the prehistoric age end?
Varies for each civilization.
Define civilization.
A society with: 1. Strong agricultural base capable of supporting an urban center, 2. Well organized political entities; 3. Development of arts and intellectual attitudes.
What does prehistoric mean?
Prehistoric means before writing.
What determines the beginning of history?
The beginning of history is determined by the first sign of written records.
Why is history said to have begun at Sumer?
History begins at Sumer because the Sumerians were undoubtedly the first to have a functioning system of writing.
How long after the Egyptian old kingdom did the middle kingdom rise?
100 years after the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom rose.
What was the god's reason for creating Enkidu?
The gods bring Enkidu into the world to provide a counterpoint to Gilgamesh.
In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the hero must face the fear of death. Discuss how Gilgamesh's fear relates to the Sumerians' struggle in unferstanding death.
Throughout the Epic of Gilgamesh, the hero must learn to come to grips with the reality that everyone must die. In ancient Sumerian culture, people needed to create an understanding of death. Ancient Sumerians used the story of a historical figure named Gilgamesh to create an explanation as to why everyone must die. The question as to why people live and why people die becomes the question that is explained in this epic.
After the death of his soulbrother Enkidu, Gilgamesh must face the fact that he will eventually die. After failing his attempts to gain immortality, Gilgamesh understands that the destiny of human immortality is impossible. Everlasting life is not his destiny. Gilgamesh realizes that one must live his/her life as fully as possible because there is no chance to correct wrongful attitudes after death. In conclusion of understanding the epic, Sumerians realize that death becomes inevitable and destiny becomes determined before the time of death.
What was the importance of Gilgamesh's obsession with overcoming his own death?
Gilgamesh's obsession with death parallels the similar fears people had at the time (and still have), and leads up to the purpose of the story, which is to explain about our inescapable mortality.
Why is Enkidu civilized in the Epic of Gilgamesh?
Enkidu’s story repeats the story of humankind, the passage from mere animal existence to self-awareness and culture. His fall from nature foreshadows another biblical motif: Adam and Eve’s fall from innocence in Eden when they become aware of their sexuality. Equilibrium, balance, and moderation are essential virtues. Gilgamesh is part god and part mortal, and these different aspects are in constant contention. The very qualities that make him so awesome—his strength and beauty—also make him monstrous, until they achieve balance. Enkidu’s wildness, likewise, must come into harmony with his humanity. He requires an equally developed spirit to control his powerful body. Enkidu’s domestication is a prerequisite for Gilgamesh’s moral education.
How does Enkidu die in the Epic of Gilgamesh?
The Gods take revenge and want to punish Gilgamesh and Enkidu for killing Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven, so they decide to place an illness on Enkidu.
What does Gilgamesh do to offend Ishtar?
He throws the thigh of the bull of Heaven at her.
What is Cosmology?
The study of the universe as a whole; of the contents, structure, and evolution of the universe from the beginning of time to the future.
Explain the E, Y, P, and D scriptural traditions.
In the E tradition, God is usually referred to with a capital and Abraham is deceitful. In the Y tradition, God is referred to as LORD God or YHWH. The P tradition is believed to be written by a priest in the 2nd temple period. The D tradition is usually found in Deuteronomy.
What does Yhwh mean?
Yhwh is s accepted by both Jews and Christians as being God's Hebrew name, as it was preserved in the original consonantal Hebrew text.
What is the difference between the two creation stories in Genesis 1-4?
On creation story explains how God created the universe in 6 days and rested on the 7th day. The second creation story explains in detail how God created man.
The first 4 chapters of Genesis chronicle...
creation of earth and mankind, fall of adam and eve, and deception by the serpent
What are some of the main reasons why the system of retributive justice that the hebrews followed was so effective in their way of life?
The system explained by good and bad things happened to them. It allowed them to have a portable adaptable way of life because they were trying to appease God.
Explain retributive justice. What is it? How had it developed in Hebrew Culture? How has it changed in the story of Job?
Retributive justice deals with the notion that good deeds are rewarded and that evil deeds are punished in this world. The Hebrew culture has adapted this belief system into their laws and faith system. They feel that civil law is a contractual obligation with God. The outcomes of all situations depend on a person's relationship with God. God punishes Job as a test of loyalty rather than a punishment for wrongdoing.
What Egyptian artifact is the only one that mentions the Hebrews or Israel?
Stele of Merneptah
How do we think we got the Codes of Urukagina, Ur-Nammu, and Lipt-Ishtar?
Historians believe that the codes came out of the court cases and became precedents in court.
Discuss the similarities between the laws regarding injury between that in Exodus and in the Code of Hammurapi.
In Exodus, " if any injury occurs, you should take life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth." and in the Code of Hammurapi, " If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out..."
Briefly discuss the similarities between the code of Hammurabi and that of Lipit-Ishtar.
There are many, including the punishments for what should happen in the event of a man cutting down a tree in his neighbors yard, hurt his ox, etc...
Moses suffered from...
stammering and violence
What is wisdom literature?
Advice passed on from one generation to the next; including other writings with paradigms of behavior and understanding.
What were the Analects?
The Analects were a form of wisdom literature. They were the sayings of Confucius, and depicted the traditional values of the time.
What are the characteristics of Confucian Wisdom?
appeal for a return to virtue, family as a model, secular focus, emphasis on rites...
An epic is:
a recount of events of historical consequences, a documentation of the variety of the world, a sum of values of a culture, a narrative of a hero's success or failure
Why wasn't achilles immortal?
His mother hadn't fully submerged him in the water of the river Styx. She had held him by the heel when dipping him in the stream, therefore leaving it vulnerable.
During the Mycenaean Age of the Mecenaean Civilization what type of administrative system did these people employ to govern themselves? And what system was it adopted from and who were the originators of this system?
The Mycenaean Civilization operated under a Hierarchical system that was adapted from the Minoan culture's palace system.
What greek word means city-state?
polis
in the late Dark Ages or Early Archaic, what was known as the "mother city"?
metropolis
What was a phalanx?
a battle strategy using spears, tightly packed with men
How many years after the Trojan War does Odysseus' journey home finally end?
10
Who was the first person seen in Hades when Odysseus went to figure out how to get home and why were they the first to be seen?
It was the young crewmate from Odysseus' ship that had fallen and broken his neck. He was the first to be seen because, since he was not properly buried, he was stuck between the real world and the underworld.
Who was the third person Odysseus met in Hades?
Tiresius
What does the Minoan fertility statue hold in her hands?
snakes
What is a fresco?
It is a technique in which water-based pigments are apllied to wet plaster.