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45 Cards in this Set

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Chemistry
Is the study of matter.
Matter
Is anything that occupies space and has weight.
Element
Is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler form by ordinary chemical reactions.
Atom
Is the smallest unit of an element with that element's chemical characteristics. It is the basic unit of matter.
Protons
Carry a Positive (+) electrical charge.
Neutrons
Carry no electrical charge.
Electrons
Carry a negative (-) electrical charge.
Atomic Number
Is the number of protons in a nucleus.
Atomic Weight
Of an atom is determine by adding the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
Isotope
Is a different fomr of the same atom.
Radioisotopes
Unstable isotopes.
Radioactivity
The process of spontaneous breakdown (decay) is called radioactivity.
Chemical Bond
The electrical attraction between atoms.
Ionic Bond
Is caused by a transfer of electrons between atoms.
Covalent Bond
Covalent bonding involves a sharing of electrons by the outer shells of the atoms.
Organic Chemistry
The study of carbon-containing substances.
Inorganic Chemistry
Studies non-carbon-containing substances.
Hydrogen Bond
It differs from the ionic and covalent bonds in that the hydrogen bond is not caused by either transfer or the sharing of electrons of the outer shells of atoms.
Polar Molecule
Is defined as a molecule that has a lopsided charge: a (+) end and a (-) end.
Ions
Elements that carry an electrical charge.
Cation
If the ion is positively charged, it is a cation.
Anion
Negatively (-) charged ion.
Sodium
Na+
Calcium
Ca2+
Iron
Fe2+
Hydrogen
H+
Potassium
K+
Ammonium
NH+/4
Chloride
CI-
Bicarbonate
BCO-/3
Phosphate
PO3/4-
Molecule
When two or more atoms bond together, they form a molecule.
Compound
A substance that contains molecules formed by two or more different atoms.
Water as the universal solvent
Water is called the universal solvent because most substances dissolve in water.
Water as temperature regulator
Water has theability to absorb large amounts of heat without the temperature of the water itself increasing dramatically.
Water as an ideal lubricant
Water is a major component of mucus and other lubricating fluids.
Water in chemical reactions
Water often plays a crucial role in chemical reactions.
Water as a protective device
Water may also be used to protect an important structure.
Oxygen
Oxygen (02), a molecule composed of two oxygen atoms, exists in nature as a gas.
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide (CO2), is a compound that consists of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. (di - means "two")
Chemical Reaction
Is a process wherey the atoms of molecules or compounds interact to form new chemical combinations.
Catalysts
Speed up the rate of chemical reaction.
Enzymes
When proteins perform the role of catalysts.
Acid
Is an electrolyte that dissociates into a hydrogen ion (H+) and an anion.
Strong Acid
Dissociates completely into H+ and an anion.