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65 Cards in this Set

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First dispersal of genus Homo and Contemporaries
Early Hominins in Africa
Around 2 mya expands to other areas Old World
New kind of Hominid
Homo erectus
Morphology of Homo erectus
Variations but shared several common traits:
body size, brain size, and cranial shape
Body size
increase height and weight
Robust
brain size
cranial size most obvious difference from early hom
Cranial shape
cranial bone: thick
brow ridge: large
Nuchal torus: back of skull
forehead: low
width of cranium: wide at base
First Homo erectus
Homo erectus from from Africa
first erectus found
east turkana
an almost complete skill was discovered
West Turkana
the most complete erectus skeleton ever found
frequently called "homo ergaster"
Olduvai
Louis Leaky unearthed a fossil skull here
Key Homo erectus discoveries from Africa
east turkana
nariokotome
olduvai gorge
early travelers
Emigration out of Africa earlier than previously thought
found in Java, Indonesia
Dmanisi
easternmost Europe
Republic of Georgia
new discovered fossils dated radiometrically to 1.75 mya
Dmanisi features
Front of skull looks more like smaller "eraly homo" specimen from east africa
stone tools not as advanced as "acheuian" tools associated with erectus
seem to be easrly primitive form of homo erectus
Homo erectus is Asia
Indonesia and China
Homo in Indonesia
Eugene Dubois
Seeks missing link
Joins Dutch East Indian Army
Pithecanthropus erectus
Next year a human femur (upright)
Dubois named it
Now agreed it is Homo erectus
H erectus from Java
Sites yield H erectus fossils
early dates range from 1.8 -1.6 mya
some unusually recent dates
H erectus from china
Zhoukoudian Homo erectus
Zhoukoudian H erectus discoveries in Peking
ancient mammal bones sold in apothecary shop
fossils discovered at Zoukoudian cave
Largest collection of H erectus material anywhere
Zhoukoudian Cultural remains
more than 100,000 artifacts recovered
cave site occupied for thousands of years
way of life
Traditional View ( assumptions)
Described as "hunter-gatherer"
used fire
interpretation now rejected by some
Challenges by recent reseachers
probably not a hunter
remains are refuse of giant hyena carnivores
probably didnt make fire
the "ash" layers are organic settlementt
cave not inhabited
had a verticle shaft and was a "trap" instead of a shelter
Asian homo erectus
Asian crania from Java to China similar
African Homo are older and dfferent from asian in several ways
Asian Homo erectus v African
Thinner cranial bones
should be classified as separate species
"homo ergaster" for African remains
Sites
Atapuerca
sima del elefante
Gran Dolina
Atapuerca Site
West Europe, Spain
includes 2 sites
1. Sima del elefante
2. gran Dolina
Sima del Elefante
Atapuerca
Northern Spain
Oldest hominin found in western Europe
Gran Dolina
Northern Spain
Atapuerca region
Spanish paleoanthropoligist name new species
"homo antecessor"
Homo antecessor
refers to fossils found at Gran Dolina First
Now including Sima del Elefante
Trends in Homo erectus
Liked to travel
suggest constructed ocean going vessels
embraced culture as a strategy of adaption
Technological Trends
Stone tool industries
Acheulian ( H erectus developed)
Acheulian
Important change
biface core tool
worked both sides
"hand ax"
Migrations Homo erectus Java and East Europe
Migrated east to Java very early
About the same time another migration route to eastern Europe
Homo heidelbergensis
much like modern human
still significantly different
"pre modern humans"
When was homo heidelbergensis
Pleistocene
Often called the Ice Age
Characteristics of heidelbergensis
Earliest premoderns
larger brain
rebounded brain case
maximum breath higher- not wider at base
trend toward brain expansion
Differences
diverse group over 3 continents
Archaic Homo Sapiens
europe and africa
Premodern Humans of the Middle Pleistocene
1. Africa
2. Europe
3. Asia
Bodo
One of the earliest Homo heidelbergensis in Africa
Evidence of butchering
Sima de los Huesos
Atapuerca, Spain
Near Gran Dolina
"pile of bones"
most middle ice age hominids remains found here
Africa H heidelbergensis evolved into
modern homo sapiens
asian H H evolved into
Neandertal 1
The Levallois Technique
used for making stone tool
requires several steps to control flake size and shape
Schoningen
Germany
3 preserved wooden spears
finely made and expertly balanced
spears indicate advanced hunting
Neandertals
"homo sapiens"
neandertalensis or
homo neandertalensis
Neandertal features brain:
Larger than today's human
Cranium and face
large low, long, bulging at sides,
brow ridges arched
face projects
post cranial
robust, barrel chested powerful muscles
shorter limbs
adaptation to living in cold climate
Neadertal discoveries
Western Europe
Central Europe
Western Asia
Central Asia
La Chapelle aux-saints
Southwest France
Shallow grae with flexed burial
Macellin Boule
paleontologist studied La Chappelle
unusually robust
brutish, bent kneed and not ful biped
Moula Guercy Cave
France
Neandertal cannibalism
St Cesaire
More recent neandertalfinds
southwest france
borrow tool making techniques from modern humans
Upper Paleolithic
culture period associated with modern humans
central europe
Kaprina
Croatia
Vindija Cave
Croatia near Kaprina
less robust than classis
among recen neandertals found
smaller browridge and slight chin developmetn
Tabun Cave
israel
less robust than European classis

comtemporary w/modern H sapeins
Kebara Cave
Isreal
skeleton with most complete pelvis
first "hyoid" bone found
Shanidar
Shanidar Cave (iraw)
deliberate burials
severely injured persons survived
Middle Paleolithic
Neandertal associated - Middle Paleolithic
Stone industry called "mousterian" industry
Mousterian technology
many flake toold
bone, ivory, antler tools very rare
Subsistence (hunting)
Successful hunters
close proximity spears
no long distance weapons
dangerous- many injuries
Numerous fractures and head and neck injuries
Art
Neandertal art work not common
small personal items