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196 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How are covalent bonds formed?
atoms share electrons
Covalent bonds are the _________ type of chemical bond.
strongest
In nonpolar covalent bonds, electrons are shared [equally/unequally].
equally
In polar covalent bonds, electrons are shared [equally/unequally].
unequally
Atoms of what 3 elements strongly attract electrons and become negatively charged compared to the other atoms sharing electrons with them?
1. oxygen
2. nitrogen
3. phosphorus
How are ionic bonds formed?
transfer of electrons
Ionic compound
atoms held together by weak ionic bonds
Ionic bonds break easily when dissolved in ________ and yield charged atoms called ______.
water; ions
hydrogen bond
weak attraction between hydrogen and an electronegative atom
Acids donate _____ to a solution.
hydrogen ions
Bases lower the concentration of ______ ____ in a solution.
hydrogen ions
The pH scale is a ____________ function of the logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
negative
In a neutral solution, the concentration of H+ is _____ to the concentration of OH- and the pH is ___.
equal; 7
Acids _____ pH and _____ H+ concentration.
lower; raise
Bases _____ pH and _____ H+ concentration.
raise; lower
Atoms of what 2 elements must organic molecules contain?
1. carbon
2. oxygen
Atoms within organic molecules are held together by ________ bonds.
covalent
Other than carbon and oxygen, what other 4 elements may be present as specific functional groups in organic molecules?
1. nitrogen
2. oxygen
3. phosphorus
4. sulfur
What %age of the adult human body is made up of water?
65-75%
______ of the water in the body is intracellular and _____ is extracellular.
2/3, 1/3
What is the smallest unit of chemical elements?
atom
What 2 types of particles make up an atom's nucleus?
1. protons
2. neutrons
Are protons and neutrons within a nucleus equal in weight?
Yes
Are protons and electrons equal in weight?
No
Which 2 particles are electrically charged?
1. protons (+)
2. electrons (-)
Atomic number
Number of protons in an atom
Mass number
Number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Which particle in an atom has no electrical charge?
Neutron
Which shell contains the electrons which participate in chemical reactions and form chemical bonds?
outermost shell
Valence electrons
electrons in outermost shell
Isotope
forms of an element that contain same number of protons and different numbers of neutrons
Hydrogen has ___ isotopes.
3
Name 2 isotopes of hydrogen.
1. deuterium
2. tritium
Molecules are formed through _______ _______.
chemical bonding
Covalent bond
atoms share valence electrons
Ionic bond
atoms gain or lose valence electrons
A covalent bond is ________ if electrons are equally distributed between the 2 atoms.
nonpolar
A covalent bond is _____ if electrons are pulled more to one side than another.
polar
What 3 elements have strong tendency to form polar molecules?
1. oxygen
2. nitrogen
3. phosphorus
Atoms that have a positive or negative charge are called _____.
ions
Cation
ion with a positive charge
Anion
ion with negative charge
Ionic compound
joining of cation with an anion
What is an example of an ionic compound?
table salt
What is an example of a polar molecule?
water
Which bond is stronger - ionic or covalent?
covalent
Hydrophilic
attracted to water
Hydrophobic
repelled by water
Hydrogen bond
hydrogen atom forms covalent bond with atom of oxygen or nitrogen. Hydrogen becomes slightly positive as electron is pulled toward other atom - weakly attracting a nearby second electronegative atom of oxygen or nitrogen.
Name 2 properties of water which are due to hydrogen bonds.
1. surface tension
2. capillary action
Capillary action
ability of water to be pulled through narrow channels
Neutral pH
10 ^-7 molar hydrogen ion, where concentrations of H+ and OH- are equal
Acid
has higher H+ concentration than water; proton donor
Base
has lower H+ concentration than water; proton acceptor
What's the formula to determine pH?
pH = log [1/H+] or -log[H+]
where H+ is molar H+ concentration
Pure water has a H+ concentration of _____ molar at 25◦C.
10^-7
Buffer
system of molecules and ions that acts to prevent changes in H+ concentration and stabilizes pH of a solution.
What is the normal range of pH of arterial blood?
7.40 +/- .05
How does excessive vomiting effect blood pH?
causes blood pH to rise
Organic molecule
molecule containing carbon and hydrogen atoms
Acidosis
blood pH below 7.35

NOTE: blood doesn't have to be acidic to be acidotic!
Alkalosis
blood pH above 7.45
What's the buffer pair that usually prevents acidosis and alkalosis?
carbonic acid and bicarbonate
What's an aromatic molecule?
a 6-sided ring having alternating double bonds between carbon atoms
Functional groups are largely responsible for the unique chemical ________ of the molecule.
properties
Functional groups are more _______ than the molecular "backbone."
reactive
If carbon atoms share one pair of electrons, they have a ______ covalent bond.
single
If carbon atoms share two pairs of electrons, they have a _______ covalent bond.
double
If carbon atoms share three pairs of electrons, they have a ______ covalent bond.
triple
Benzene is an example of a/an ______ compound.
aromatic
Organic molecules containing a carbonyl group are called _________.
ketones
If carbon atoms share one pair of electrons, they have a ______ covalent bond.
single
If carbon atoms share two pairs of electrons, they have a _______ covalent bond.
double
If carbon atoms share three pairs of electrons, they have a ______ covalent bond.
triple
Benzene is an example of a/an ______ compound.
aromatic
Organic molecules containing a carbonyl group are called _________.
ketones
Alcohols contain which functional group?
hydroxyl
What functional group is found in all organic acids?
carboxyl
3 shapes of hydrocarbon molecules:
1. linear
2. cyclic
3. aromatic ring
What is a carboxyl group?
COOH
Stereoisomer
2 molecules having the same atoms and arranged in same sequence, yet differing in spatial orientation of key functional group.
2 types of stereoisomers:
1. D-isomer (dextro- or right-handed); or
2. L-isomer (left-handed)
6 types of functional groups:
1. carbonyl
2. hydroxyl
3. sulfhydryl
4. amino
5. carboxyl; and
6. phosphate
4 categories of organic molecules based on functional groups:
1. ketone
2. organic acid
3. aldehyde; and
4. alcohol
An enzyme can combine with both stereoisomers of a given molecule. T/F
False
Enzymes can combine only with ___- amino acids and ___-sugars.
L, D
3 types carbohydrates:
1. monosaccharides
2. disaccharides; and
3. polysaccharides
What physical property is shared by all lipids?
Lipids are nonpolar, thus insoluble in water.
2 similarities of carbs and lipids:
1. consist primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; and
2. serve as major energy sources in the body.
General formula for a carb molecule:
molecule has twice as many hydrogens as carbon or oxygen atoms
Another term for monosaccharide is _______ sugar.
simple
What suffix denotes a sugar molecule?
-ose
A disaccharide is formed by the ____ bonding of 2 monosaccharides.
covalent
3 examples of monosaccharides:
1. glucose
2. fructose; and
3. galactose
3 examples of disaccharides:
1. sucrose
2. lactose; and
3. maltose
4 examples of polysaccharides:
1. starch
2. glycogen
3. cellulose
4. chitin
The major polysaccharides are chains of repeating ________ subunits.
glucose
Can humans hydrolyze cellulose? Y/N
No.
Chitin forms the ______ of arthropods such as insects and crustaceans.
exoskeleton
The net movement of water through a cell is called _______.
osmosis
Why do cells store carbs as polysaccharides, rather than many monosaccharides?
Fewer polysaccharides (lower concentration) draw less water into a cell than many monosaccharides (high concentration) would. Too much water entering the cell can damage/kill cell.
_______ and ________ can store excess glucose in the form of glycogen.
Liver; muscles
Dehydration synthesis
monosaccharides are bonded together covalently when a hydrogen atom is removed from one and a hydroxyl group (OH) is removed from another, producing water
Hydrolysis
digestion reactions, requiring water, which break down disaccharides or polysaccharides.
Dehydration synthesis is the opposite of _______.
hydrolysis
Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis do/do not occur spontaneously.
do not
Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis require specific ________.
enzymes
Reactions similar to dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis take place to build and break down carbs, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. T/F
True
What is primary component of lipids?
hydrocarbon chains and rings
2 lipid solvents:
1. ether; and
2. benzene
2 triglycerides:
1. fat
2. oil
What's another term for triglyceride?
triacylglycerol
Trigycerides are formed through condensation of 1 molecule of ______ and 3 molecules of _____ _____.
glycerol; fatty acids
2 types of fatty acids:
1. saturated; and
2. unsaturated
Saturated fatty acid
carbon atoms within the hydrocarbon chain can bond with 2 hydrogen atoms
Unsaturated fatty acid
carbon atoms within the hydrocarbon chain can bond with 1 hydrogen atom
Saturated fat
triglyceride containing mostly saturated fatty acids
Unsaturated fat
triglyceride containing mostly unsaturated fatty acids
The recommended daily fat intake allowance is _____; less than ____ of the daily energy intake should be saturated fat.
30%; 10%
Most naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids are ____ fatty acids because the hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bond between carbon atoms.
cis
How are trans fatty acids formed?
by partially hydrogenating vegetable oils
The structure of a cis fatty acid is _____.
sawtooth
The structure of a trans fatty acid is ______.
straight
Most commercially prepared fried and baked foods contain _______ fats.
trans
Saturated fat and trans fatty acids have been shown to increase the risk of ________ by raising _____ (bad) cholesterol and lowering _____ (good) cholesterol.
coronary heart disease; LDL; HDL
Triglycerides are ______ fats because fatty acids combined with glycerol can no longer release H+ and function as acids.
neutral
What is released into the blood as a result of hydrolysis of triglycerides?
free fatty acids
Free fatty acids can be converted by the _____ into derivatives called ketone bodies.
liver
An example of a/an _________ _____ is acetone, the solvent in nail polish remover.
ketone body
This condition occurs when a rapid breakdown of fat results in elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood.
ketosis
The condition where insufficient ketone bodies are in the blood to lower the blood pH is called ________.
ketoacidosis
What is responsible for the "fruity" smell to the breath which occurs in ketosis?
acetone
Ketonuria
elevated levels of ketone bodies in the urine
The most common type of phospholipid is formed when glycerol is attached to 2 fatty acids and a _______ group.
phosphate
Nonpolar ends of phospholipids are _________.
hydrophobic
The dual nature of phospholipids allows them to decrease water's surface tension, making them ________.
surfactants
The surfactant effect of ____________ prevents the lungs from collapsing due to surface tension forces.
phospholipids
Phospholipids are the main component of cell __________.
membranes
The basic structure of a steroid: _____ six-carbon ring/s joined to _____ five-carbon ring/s
3; 1
Lecithin is also called _________.
phosphatidylcholine
Micelle
structure formed when hydrophilic part of molecules face aqueous environment and hydrophobic parts group together
________ is the precursor for steroid hormones produced by the gonads and adrenal cortex.
Cholesterol
Ovaries produce ________ and _________.
estradiol; progesterone
Testes produce _________.
testosterone
3 sex steroids
1. estadiol
2. progesterone
3. testosterone
Corticosteroids are produced by the ________ _______.
adrenal cortex
2 corticosteroids
1. hydrocortisone
2. aldosterone
Cholesterol is an important component of the cell ________, and serves as the precursor molecule for _____ salts and vitamin ____.
membrane; bile; D₃
____________ are a family of regulatory compounds derived from a membrane lipid known as arachidonic acid.
Prostaglandins
Proteins are large molecules composed of _____ _____ subunits.
amino acid
How many types of amino acids can be used in constructing a given protein?
20
_______ _____ contain genetic information needed for protein synthesis.
Nucleic acids
Genetic information determines the sequence of _____ _____; thus determining the _______ of the protein.
amino acids; structure
2 types of nucleic acids
1. DNA
2. RNA
5 examples of functions regulated by prostaglandins.
1. vasoconstriction/vasodilation
2. ovulation
3. uterine contractions
4. inflammation reactions
5. blood clotting
Amino acids have a ____ group at one end and a ______ group at the other.
amino; carboxyl
Differences between amino acids are due to differences in their _______ groups.
functional
Amino acids are joined together by _________ __________.
dehydration synthesis
The bond between amino acids is a _________ bond, and the compound formed is called a ________.
peptide; peptide
A dipeptide is ___ amino acids bound together.
two
Polypeptide
chain of amino acids
A polypeptide chain longer than 100 amino acids is called a ________.
protein
Myosin contains _____ amino acids.
4500
What is protein denaturation?
change in protein structure due to high temperature or change in pH
Disulfide bond
strong covalent bonds between sulfur atoms which stabilizes tertiary structure of protein
Protein primary structure
sequence of amino acids
Protein secondary structure
shape of polypeptide chain caused by weak hydrogen bonds
2 examples of secondary structure
1. alpha helix
2. beta pleated sheet
Protein tertiary structure
bent and folded polypeptide chain caused by chemical interactions between functional groups of amino acids
van der Waals forces
weak forces between electrically neutral molecules that come very close together.
Protein quarternary structure
covalently bonded polypeptide chains
Glycoproteins are proteins conjugated with _______.
carbs
Lipoproteins are _______ conjugated with lipids.
proteins
Hemoglobin is an example of protein conjugated with a ______ molecule.
pigment
2 examples of structural proteins
1. collagen
2. keratin
Enzymes and antibodies are ______.
proteins
Proteins in cell membranes may serve as _________ for specific hormones and as __________ for transport of specific molecules across the membrane.
receptors; carriers
5 categories of protein function:
1. structure
2. antibody
3. enzyme
4. receptor
5. carrier
Subunits of nucleic acids are ____________.
nucleotides
Process by which nucleotides are bonded together to form long polynucleotide chains.
dehydration synthesis
3 subunits of a nucleotide:
1. a pentose sugar
2. phosphate group
3. nitrogenous base
2 kinds of nitrogenous bases contained in nucleotides:
1. pyrimidines
2. purines
Pyrimidines have a single ring of _______ and ________, whereas purines have ______ such rings.
carbon, nitrogen, 2
Pentose in DNA nucleotides is _________.
deoxyribose
Pentose in RNA nucleotides is _______.
ribose
4 possible bases of DNA nucleotides:
1. guanine
2. adenine
3. cytosine
4. thymine
Guanine and adenine are ________.
purines
Cytosine and thymine are __________.
pyrimidines
DNA structure is a _____ _____.
double helix
Law of complementary base pairing
adenine only bonds with thymine (through 2 hydrogen bonds) and guanine only bonds with cytosine (through 3 hydrogen bonds)
A gene has a length of several ______ nucleotides.
thousand
Human genome
all of the genes in a cell
The total human genome consists of over __________ base pairs
3 billion
2 differences between DNA and RNA
1. DNA has deoxyribose; RNA has ribose
2. DNA has thymine; RNA has uracil
RNA structure
single strand of nucleotides
3 types RNA in cytoplasm
1. mRNA
2. tRNA
3. rRNA