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93 Cards in this Set

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Clonorchis sinensis
Human Liver Fluke
What species? What life stage?
Common name is Human Liver Fluke
Incomplete digestive sys
found in bile ducts of host
Single anterior sucker
What observable feature would a diagnostician use in making this identification? List enough features to distinguish it from all similar structures
Can you see a digestive system or suckers present
Identify structures at ends of pointers
A. Anterior Sucker
B. Vitellaria (yolk glands)
C/D Testes
E. Ventral Sucker
F. Uterus w/eggs
G. Intestinal Caecum
Start at the anterior end
Muscular throat - pulls in food, breaks it up and pushes it into esophagus
referred to as the masticating orgain
Identify structure at end of pointer, what is it used for?
food goes through this organ

tube that moves food to intestinal caecum
Name structure at the end of pointer and its purpose
a tube
The single ovary.

produces ova which is released into ovaduct
Identify structure at end of pointer and its purpose
There is only one in flukes
The mouth.
purpose is opening into the digestive system
What is this structure and what is its purpose
The opening itself
Flame cells and their collecting ducts
Vitelline glands and their ducts
What is located in this region (visible and may not be visible)
There are two different systems that occupy this space.
Describe the male reproductive system of a fluke from testes to genital pore
Sperm starts in testes, and is collected into vas efferens. The two tubes become the vas deferens which turns into the seminal vesicle. This is a temp storage site for sperm. The seminal vesicle joins and ejaculatory duct.The prostate complex is in this area. Some may have a cirrus and cirrus pouch which ends in the genital atrium
What is the purpose of the vitellaria?
produce vitelline cells that are carried by ducts to oviduct. These are the yolk glands that produce yolk cells.
In Flukes:
What is the purpose of Mehlis' gland?
Secretes enzymes that cause shell granules in the yolk cells to coalesce and solidify to form the egg shell.
In Flukes:
What is Laurer's canal?
vestigial vagina

it is attached to the duct of the seminal receptabcle
In Flukes:
What is the purpose of the excretory system and name the 4 main structures
maintains osmolarity.
flame cells - functional portion of system. collects water and pushes through ducts.
collecting ducts - funnels water to bladder
excretory badder - sac-like tubule
excretory pore - spincter muscle that periodically dilates and releases water.
Miracidium of a fluke
1st larval stage
What type of organism is this, and which life stage?
free swimming
Miracidium of a fluke.
1st larval stage.
What type of organism is this, and what life stage?
free swimming
In flukes:
what is the first stage after egg?
is the first larval stage
In flukes:
where must an egg be deposited in order to continue life cycle?
in water
What does a miracidium do?
It is free swimming, non feeding. finds and enter first intermediate host (certain freshwater snails)
How does a miracidium swim?
by using the cilia located on its epidermal plates
How does a miracidium enter its first intermediate host?
once it finds a snail, it swims along mucus layer and finds a crevice. It attaches via apical papilla forming a suction cup and holds on while releasing digestive fluid from the apical gland. The penetration glands release histolytic enzymes which dissolve tissues. Using the apical papilla to wiggle in it burrows through body wall and adjacent tissues where it forms a sporocyst
Apical papilla
What is the structure at the end of the pointer?
used for attachment
Epidermal plates with cilia
What is covering this organism?
look at the thick brushlike border
developing embryos
Identify the structures at the end of the pointers
what is the purpose of this organism
Germinal cells
Identify structure at end of pointer
hmmm hard to tell what they are yet?
If you could see two back to back C shaped objects in this view. What would they be?
What is missing from the miracidium
digestive tract
reproductive system
What is lifespan of a miracidium
less than 24 hours
(average is 12 hours)
What is diagnostic importance of the miracidium
how many developing embryos may be present in a miracidium?
up to 6
how does the miacidium make developing embryos?
through polyembryonation
Sporocycst. The second larval stage of a fluke. it contains rediae.
What is the stage of the life cycle and what does it contain?
What may you find in a sporocyst. (identifiable structures)?
Body wall, brood chamber, birth port, developing embryos and germinal cells
What is the longevity of a sporocyst?
approx 4 weeks
How does a sporocyst eat?
Through body wall. No digestive system
What is the function of a sporocyst?
produce rediae.
What is the difference between a sporocyst and a daughter sporocyst?
Daughter sporocysts contain cercaria, instead of rediae
What life stage is the redia?
The 3rd larval stage, 2nd generation
where are redia found?
produced inside of snail in the sporocyst by poly embryony. Stays in body cavity and surrounding tissue
What is the function of the redia?
produces next generation (cercariae)
Main visible difference between redia and sporocyst?
redia have digestive tract, while the sporocyst does not.
What is the diagnostic importance of the redia?
Redia of the flukes. It is the 3rd larval stage.
What is this type organism and what life stage?
A. Cercariae
B. Mouth
C. Pharnyx
D. Collar
E. Tail
Identify the lettered structures
A. Body - part that evolves into body of juvenile
B. Tail - used for swimming
C. Oral Sucker - attaches to next host
D. Penetration glands - used for burrowing into next host
E. primordium
Region: primordium - will develop into other organs
Identify structures and function
What life stage causes swimmer's itch?
how does cercariae find host?
photoreceptors to find general location, then chemoreceptors will find next host
Where are cercariae found?
produced inside snails. leaves snail becomes free-swimming in aquatic environment, find and enter next host.
What is the 2nd intermediate host for C. sinensis?
certain freshwater fish
What is the final host of the cercariae of the S. Mansoni?
What are the larval stages of the fluke?
Egg -> miracidium -> sporocyst -> redia -> cercariae - > metacercariae -> juvenile -> adult
what is a metacercariae?
An encysted juvenile fluke. Not always present in life cycle of fluke (i.e. blood flukes lack encystment)
What is the function of the metacercaria?
transmissable stage, that must be orally ingested by next host
Where are metacercariae found?
in 2nd int host (fishes/crustaceans)
how is the metacercariae made?
cyst wall secreted by cercaria, hardens and forms cyst wall.
metacercaria of fluke
What is this life stage?
A. Oral sucker
B. Cyst wall
C. Ventral sucker
Identify structures
a. cyst wall
b. oral sucker
c. excretory bladder
d. ventral sucker
Identify structures and life stage
Clonorchis sinensis
small size
rimmed operculum
(small spine is sometimes present)
Identify species and give diagnostic features

27-35 um long
12-20 um wide
fluke or tape?
Clonorchis sinensis

rimmed operculum
small size
small spine is sometimes present
Identify species and give diagnostic features

<50 um
Clonorchis sinensis

small size
rimmed operculum
small spine is sometimes present
Identify species and give diagnostic features

<50 um
Schistosoma mansoni

No operculum
Large posterolateral spine
Name species and give diagnostic features

>100 um
Schistosoma hematobium

No operculum
terminal spine on large eggs
Identify species and give diagnostic features
Schistosoma hematobium

Terminal spine on large eggs
Identify species and diagnostic feature
Schistosoma japonica

small posterolateral spine
on medium sized egg
Name species and give diagnostic features

65-105 um long
50-90 um wide
Schistosoma japonica
small posterolateral spine on medium egg
Name species and give diagnostic features

Moderate sized
Fasciolopsis buski

non-rimmed operculum on large egg
Name species and diagnostic features

>100 um
Paragonimus westermani

rimmed operculum medium egg
Name species and give diagnostic features

70-120 um long
45-65 um wide
Paragonimus westermani

rimmed operculum on med egg
found in human sputum or feces
Name species and diagnostic features.
Where might this egg be found?
Schistosoma mansoni
Name species and gender
Schistosoma mansoni

a. Ventral sucker
b. Gynocophoric canal
c. Testes
Identify species and structures
a. testes
b. esophagus / esophageal glands
c. ventral sucker
d. female schistosoma mansoni
e. gynecophoric canal
Identify structures
Schistosoma mansoni
Name species and gender
Paragonimus westermani
Identify species

8 to 16 mm long
4 to 8 mm wide
a oral sucker
b pharynx
c esophagus
d intestinal ceaca
e ovary
f vitellaria
g testes
h uterus
Identify structures
Fasciolopsis buski
Name species

2 - 8 cm long
8 - 20 mm wide
a oral sucker
b ventral sucker
c seminal vesicle
d uterus
e. ovary
f. mehlis' gland
g testis
h vitellaria
Identify structures
The Scolex inculding the acetabula, rostellum and hooks
and the neck
Taenia pisiformis adult
What is visible in this picture?
a. hooks
b. rostellum
c. suckers
d. neck
Identify structures
2 testis
3 uterus
4 genital atrium
5 vas deferens
6 vagina
7 ovaries
8 vitallarium
Identify structures (except 1)
Identify species and structures
Hymenolipis diminuta
a. outer true shell
b. embryophore (inner shell)
c. oncosphere
Identify species and structures
Hymenolipis diminuta
a. true outer shell
b. embryophore (innershell)
c. oncosphere
d. hooks
Identify species and structures
Hymenolipis nana
a outer shell
b polar filaments
c embryophore w/polar knobs
d oncosphere
Identify species and structures
Taenia saginata or solium

a. thick striated embryophore
b larva w/ hooks
Taenia saginata or solium
Diagnostics: larva w/hooks = tapeworm
thick striated embryophore = taenia
honeycomb surface
Identify and give diagnostic features
Diphyllobothrium latum
Identify species
Diphyllobothrium latum
non-rimmed operculum on medium egg
Identify species and give diagnostic features
58-75 um long
40-50 um wide
name order
Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis
Identify structures and possible causative agent
How many uterine branches in the gravid proglottid of Taenia saginata?
15 - 30 pairs
How many uterine branches in the gravid proglottid of Taenia solium
7 - 13
What is the diagnostic characteristic of the H. nana proglottid?
proglottid less than 1 mm w/saclike uterus
Difference between H.nana and H. diminuta proglottids?
H. nana is <1 mm
H. diminuta is 1.5 - 4 mm
Which tape has a rosette shaped uterus?
Diphyllobothrium latum