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166 Cards in this Set

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What is the common name of Ascaris lumbricoides?
Large Intestinal Roundworm
What is the disease associated with A. lumbricoides?
Ascariasis
What is the final location in humans of A. lumbricoides?
Adults; L.I.
Larvae; Liver, Lungs and S.I.
What are the reservoir hosts of A. lumbricoides?
Pigs (most common)
What type of life cycle does A. lumbricoides have?
Direct
What are the intermediate hosts of the large intestinal roundworm?
None (Ascaris)
What is the distribution of Ascaris?
Worldwide (including the U.S.)
What is the infective stage in humans of Ascaris?
2nd stage larva in the egg.
How is Ascaris transmitted to humans?
Oral ingestion of the egg from hands.
What is the major damage occures from an Ascaris infection?
Destruction of lung tissue.
Hypersensitivity of the liver, blockage of the S.I., bile ducts, liver, stomach, and trachea/esophagus are unique or unusual pathological effects of what Nematode?
Ascaris lumbricoides
How does one diagnose an infection of A. lumbricoides?
By finding adults or eggs in the feces.
What is the Tx. of an Ascaris infection?
Mebendazole (S.I.)
Thiabendazole (body tissue)
What are the Prophylactic measures that should be used to prevent the spread of A. lumbricoides?
1. Human/pig fecal confinement
2. Prevent children from eating dirt.
3. Wash vegetables before eating (personal)
4. Wash hands prior to eating (personal)
5. Keep hands out of mouth (personal)
6. No way to treat fertilizer.
What species has the common name of New world hookworm?
Necator americanus
What disease is caused by Necator americanus?
Necatoriasis
What is the final location of Necator in humans?
Adults; S.I.
Larvae; Skin, Lungs, Blood, and S.I.
What reservoir hosts are there for Necator?
Dogs and Pigs
What type of life cycle does New world hookworm have?
Direct (and free living)
What intermediate hosts are present for Necator?
None
What is the distribution of N. americanus?
Warm, moist areas of the tropics, subtropics and temperate zones. (Warm moist areas of the U.S.)
What is the infective life stage of Necator for humans?
3rd stage larva (filaform larva)
How does Necator infect humans?
It burrows into the thin skin (usually in the foot), from the soil.
What is the major damage caused by Necatoriasis?
Anemia
Malnourishment, Physical/mental retardation in children, and abortion of fetuses in women are unusual or unique pathological effects caused by what parasite?
Necator americanus
How does one Dx. an infection with N. americanus?
By finding eggs or adults in the fetus.
What is the Tx. for Necatoriasis?
Mebendazole (S.I.)
Thiabendazole (body tissue)
What prophylactic measures are used to prevent the spread of Necator americanus?
1. Fecal confinement
2. Wear shoes (personal)
3. Don't lie on bear ground, especially to sleep (personal)
4. Disinfect soil around human dwellings with salt/lime/sodium borate
5.
What is the common name of Ancylostoma duodenale?
Old world hookworm
What is the disease caused by Ancylostoma duodenale?
Ancylostomiasis
What is the final location of A. duodenale in humans?
Adults; S.I.
Larvae; Skin, Blood, Lungs and S.I.
What are the reservoir hosts of A. duodenale?
Humans (#1)
Pigs (rarely)
What type of life cycle does the Old world hookworm have?
Direct
What are the intermediate hosts for A. duodenale?
None
What is the distribution of Old world hookworm?
Parts of Asia and S.America
What is the distribution of Ancylostoma in the U.S.?
South eastern part of the U.S.
What are the environmental factors necessary for hookworms to survive?
1. Warm year round temperatures
2. Loose soil
3. Adequate moisture
4. Shaded upper 1 inch of soil
What are the unique or unusual pathological effects of an Ancylostoma infection?
1. Malnourishment
2. Physical/mental retardation in children
3. Abortion of fetus' in women
How can you properly diagnose an infection of Ancylostoma?
Eggs or adults in the feces
What is the Tx. for Ancylostomiais?
Mebendazole (S.I)
Thiabendazole (body tissue)
What parasites prophylactic measures does Ancylostoma's mimic?
Necator americanus
What is the common name of Trichuris trichiura?
Human whipworm
What is the disease caused by Trichuris?
Trichuriasis
What is the final location of Trichuris in humans?
Adults; L.I.
Larvae; S.I.
What are the reservoir hosts of Trichuris?
Pigs (rarely dogs)
What type of life cycle does the human whipworm have?
Direct (no free living stages)
What are the intermediate hosts of Trichuris?
None
What is the distribution of Trichuris trichiura?
Worldwide (including Sacto)
What is the infective stage for humans of Trichuris?
1st stage larvae in the egg
How is Trichuris transmitted to humans?
Through oral ingestion of the egg.
What is the major damage caused to humans by an infection with Trichuris?
Inflammation of the L.I.
Anemia due to feeding and toxic effets on hematopoetic tissue, retardation of growth, and prolapse of rectum are unusual or unique pathological effects of what parasitic infection?
That of Trichuris trichiura
How does one properly diagnose an infection with Trichuris?
By finding eggs in the feces.
What drug(s) are used to Tx. Human Whipworm?
Mebendazole
What are the prophylactic measures used to prevent the spread of Whipworm?
1. Human Fecal confinement
2. Prevent children from eating dirt
3. Wash vegetables before eating (personal)
4. Wash hands prior to eating (personal)
5. Keep hands out of mouth (personal)
6. No treatment for fertilizer
What parasitic nematode does Trichuris trichiura share the same prophylactic measures with?
Ascaris lumbricoides
(Human/Pig fecal confinement but, T.T. is only human fecal confinement)
What is the common name of Trichinella spiralis?
Trichina worm
What is the disease caused by Thrichinella?
Trichinosis or trichinellosis
What is the final location of Trichinella in humans?
Adults; S.I.
Larvae; S.I., and Skeletal Muscles
What are the reservoir hosts of Trichinella?
Numerous. (Pigs, Bears, Rats)
What type of life cycle does Trichinella have?
Direct
What are the intermediate hosts of Trichinella?
None
What is the distribution of Trichinella spiralis?
Worldwide (primarily Europe, Mexico and China/Loas)
What is the infective stage for humans of Trichinella?
1st stage larva in skeletal muscle.
How is Trichina worm transmitted to humans?
The 1st stage larva is ingested in infected meat.
What is the major damage caused to humans by an infection with Trichinella?
Skeletal muscle inflammation and destruction.
Intestinal inflammation, allergic reactions, and destruction and inflammation of other tissues including the heart, kidneys and lungs are unique or unusual pathological effects of what Nematode?
Trichinella spiarlis
How does one diagnose an infection with Trichinella?
Immunological tests or a biopsy of skeletal muscle that contains encysted nematode larvae.
What is the Tx and Px of an infection with Trichinella?
Treat only the symptoms and prognosis is poor.
Mebendazole and Thiabendazole for adults in the lining and lumen of S.I., respectively. Thiabendazole can also treat 1st stage larvae and embryos in the skeletal muscle.
What prophylactic measures are used against Trichinella spiralis?
1. Cook pork thoroughly
2. Avoid dried or salted pork
3. Freeze pork thoroughly
4. Prohibit feeding of infected garbage to pigs
5. Inspect pork for trichinae
(all personal too)
What is the common name for Enterobius vermicularis?
Human Pinworm
What is the disease caused by Enterobius vermicularis?
Enterobiasis
What is the final location in humans of Enterobius?
Adults; L.I.
Larvae; S.I., and Skeletal Muscle
How is Enterobius transmitted to humans?
The 1st stage larva is orally ingested, although inhalation is possible.
What is the infective stage of Enterobius for humans?
1st stage larva in the egg.
What is the distribution of Enterobius?
Worldwide
What type of life cycle does the Human Pinworm have?
Direct?
What intermediate hosts does Enterobius have?
None
What is the major damage caused to humans by enterobiasis?
None, usually. Although some have perianal puritis (itching).
Inflammation of the intestine and vaginitis are unique or unusual pathological effects of what nematode?
Enterobius vermicularis
How does one Dx an infection with Enterobius vermicularis?
By finding eggs in the perianal folds (scotch tape swab).
What is the Tx for an infection of Human Pinworm?
Mebendazole and the Px is excellent.
What are the prophylactic measures used against Enterobius?
1. Wash hands before eating
2. Keep hands away from mouth
(all personal too)
What is the common name of Wuchereria bancrofti?
Bancroft's Filarial Worm
What disease is caused by Wuchereria?
Wuchereriasis
What is the final location of Wuchereria in humans?
Adults; Lymphatic circulatory system
Larvae; Skin, and Circulatory system
What are the reservoir hosts of Wuchereria?
None
What type of life cycle does Wuchereria have?
Indirect
What is the intermediate host(s) of Wuchereria?
Certain Mosquitoes
What is the distribution of Wuchereria?
Warm, moist areas of the tropics and subtropics. (Equitorial Africa)
What is the distribution of Wuchereria in the U.S.?
None
What is the infective stage of Wuchereria for humans?
3rd stage larvae
How is Wuchereria transmitted to to humans?
It crawls through an opening in the skin (mosquito bite).
What is the infective stage for the intermediate hosts of Wuchereria?
Microfilariae (embryos)
How does the intermediate host of Wuchereria bancrofti become infected?
Through a blood meal (Microfilariae circulate in the periphery at dawn and dusk)
What is the major damage caused by Wuchereriasis?
Obstruction of the lymph vessels
Elephantitis, and extreme allergic reactions are unique or unusual pathological effects of what nematode infection?
Wuchereria bancrofti
How do you Dx an infection with Wuchereria?
By finding microfilariae in the blood smears.
How do you sucessfully Tx an infection with Wuchereria?
1. Hetrazan. (Sterilizes adults and kills microfilariae but, doesn't kill adults)
2. Anti-inflammatory drugs
3. Pressure bandages
4. Surgery to remove blocked vessels
What are the prophylactic measures used against Wuchereria?
1. Mosquito control
2. Mass drug treatment with Hetrazan
3. Mosquito repellant (personal)
4. Sleep in mosquito repellant (personal)
5. No chemoprophylaxis
What is the common name of Dracunculus medinensis?
Guinea worm or Medina worm
What disease is caused by Dracunculus?
Dracunculiasis
What is the final location of Dracunculus in humans?
Adults; Deep in connective tissue and Subcutaneous tissue
Larvae; Deep connective tissue
What are the reservoir hosts of Dracunculus?
Very few, almost erradicated.
What type of life cycle does Dracunculus have?
Indirect
What is the intermediate host of Dracunculus?
Copepods
What is the distribution of the Guinea Worm?
Southern Sudan and remote areas of Africa (not in U.S.)
What is the common name of Strongyloides stercoralis?
No common name
What is the disease caused by Strongyloides?
Strongyloidiasis
What is the final location in humans of Strongyloides?
Adults;S.I., L.I. in big infections
Larvae; Skin, Blood , Lungs, S.I., L.I.
What are the reservoir hosts of Strongyloides?
Dogs mainly but, cats and monkeys also.
What type of life cycle does Strongyloides have?
Direct
What intermediate hosts are there for Strongyloides?
None
What is the distribution of Strongyloides?
Warm, moist areas of the tropics , subtropics nad temperatate zones. (Louisiana)
What stage of Strongyloides in infectious to humans?
3rd stage larva
How is Strongyloides transmitted to humans?
The 3rd stage lar va burrows into the skin.
What is the major damage caused to humans by an infection of strongyloidiasis?
Ulceration of the S.I. lining.
Lung damage, chest pains, mild and vague distress, and nausea are unique or unusual effects of what nematode?
Strongyloides stercoralis
How does one Dx an infection with Strongyloides?
1. By finding larvae or eggs (rare)in the feces
2. Immunological tests
How do you treat an infection with Strongyloides?
Albendazole (S.I. and Lungs)
What prophylactic measures can be used against Strongyloides?
1. Wear shoes
2. Don't sit or lie on the ground
3. Proper disposal of human feces and dog feces especially in cold areas.
4. Wash hands prior to eating (personal)
5. Wash garden vegetables prior to eating (personal)
What is the common name of Onchocerca volvulus?
No common name
What is the disease caused by Onchocerca?
Onchocerciasis
What is the final location in humans of Onchocerca?
Adults, Larave, Microfilariae; Subcutaneous tissues
What are the reservoir hosts of Onchocerca?
None
What type of life cycle does Onchocerca have?
Indirect
What is the distribution of Onchocerca?
Central and Equitorial Africa
What is/are the reservoir host(s) of Onchocerca?
None
What is the infectious stage of Onchocera in humans?
3rd stage larvae in black fly head.
How is Onchocerca transmitted to humans?
#rd stage larvae burrows out of the head of the fly and enters the bite site in the host.
What is the infective stage of the intermediate host of Onchocera?
Microfilariae in Subcutaneous tissues.
How is Onchocera transmitted to it's intermediate host?
Blood/Tissue fluid meal
What is the major damage caused to humans by Onchocerca?
Blindness
Sagging, thickening and wrinkiling of the skin, and large nodules are unique or unusual effects of what nematode?
Onchocerca volvulus
How do you diagnose an infection with Onchocerca?
1. See nodules
2. Biopsy skin for microfilariae
3. Remove nodule and look for adult
4. ELISA
How does one Tx and infection of Onchocerca?
1. Surgical removal of nodules
2. Drug Tx; Ivermectin and Corticosteroides (to reduce inflammation)
What are the 3 most deadly Nematodes?
1. Ascaris lumbricoides
2. Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale
3. Wuchereria bancrofti
What are the prophylactic measures used against Onchocerca?
1. COntrol of black flies (insectisides and varying water levels)
2. Treat infected people by removing nodules or with ivermectin drug Tx.
3. Use insect repellant (personal)
4. Stay in housing with good physical barriers (personal)
5. Sleep inside mosquito netting (personal)
What is the disease caused by Ancylostoma brazilienses and Uncinaria stenocephala?
Cutaneous Larva Migrans
What is/are the reservoir host(s) of A.brazilienses and U.stenocephala?
Cats, Dogs, and Cattle
What is the distribution of the nematodes that cause Cutaneous Migrans?
Tropics, Subtropics, and warm parts of temperate zones. (Same in the U.S.)
What is the transmissional stage of A.brazilienses and U.stenocephala to humans?
#rd stage larva
What are the prophylactic measures used against Onchocerca?
1. COntrol of black flies (insectisides and varying water levels)
2. Treat infected people by removing nodules or with ivermectin drug Tx.
3. Use insect repellant (personal)
4. Stay in housing with good physical barriers (personal)
5. Sleep inside mosquito netting (personal)
What is the disease caused by Ancylostoma brazilienses and Uncinaria stenocephala?
Cutaneous Larva Migrans
What is/are the reservoir host(s) of A.brazilienses and U.stenocephala?
Cats, Dogs, and Cattle
What is the distribution of the nematodes that cause Cutaneous Migrans?
Tropics, Subtropics, and warm parts of temperate zones. (Same in the U.S.)
What is the transmissional stage of A.brazilienses and U.stenocephala to humans?
3rd stage larva
How is cutaneous migrans transmitted to humans?
3rd stage larva are in the soil and burrow into the skin.
What is the major damage caused to humans by cutaneous migrans?
Dermatitis
Wandering around under the skin is an unusual or unique effect of whta nematode?
A.brazilienses and U.stenocephala
(cutaneous migrans)
How do you diagnos an infection with Cutaneous Larva Migrans?
Linear Dermatitis and Creeping Eruptions
How do you Tx Cutaneous Migrans?
1. Freeze larvae in skin (ethyl chloride and liquid nitrogen)
2. Drug Tx (Thiabendazole, for larvae)
3. Anti-inflammatory drugs
What prophylactic measures are used against the nematodes the cause Cutaneous Migrans?
1. Wear shoes (personal)
2. Don't lie on the ground (personal)
3. Deworm cats and dogs regularly
4. Confine cats and dogs
5. Properly dispose of cat and dog feces.
What disease does Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, and Ancylostoma canium cause?
Viseral Larva Migrans
What is the final location of Visceral Migrans in humans?
Liver for T.caris/cati
Wall of S.I. and Lungs
What are the reservoir hosts of Viseral Migrans?
Cats and Dogs
What are the top 4 most prevealent nematodes worldwide?
1. Ascaris
2. Necator
3. Trichuris
4. Enterobius
What are the top 4 most prevalent nematodes in the U.S.?
1. Enterobius
2. Strongyloides
3. Trichinella
4. Ascaris
What is the distribution of Viseral Migrans?
Most cases are in the U.S.
What is the infective stage for humans of Viseral Migrans?
Ascarids; 2nd stage larvae in eggs
Hookworms; 3rd stage larvae in soil
How is Viseral Migrans transmitted to humans?
Ascarids; Orally ingested eggs
Hookworms; Larva burrow into the skin
What is the major damage caused by an infection of Viseral Migrans?
Inflammation of the Liver
Adominal discomfort, Nausea, and Diarrhea are unique or unusual effects of what nematodes?
Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, and Ancylostoma canium (viseral Larva Migrans)
How do you Dx an infection of Viseral Migrans?
ELISA. Most cases are never diagnosed.
How do you treat Viseral Migrans?
Albendazole and Anti-inflammitory drugs
What prophylactic measures are used to prevent the spread of Viseral Larval Migrans?
1. Prevent children form eating dirt
2. Deworm cats and dogs periodically (6mo.)
3. Confinement of cats and dogs
4. Proper disposal of cat and dog feces
5. Wash hands prior to eating (Ascarids)[personal]
6. WEar shoes (hookworms)[personal]